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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (93)
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1
Q

What is Middle Childhood?

A

Period between early childhood and

early adolescence ages 7-11

2
Q

What safeguards children ages 7-11?

A

Genetic and environmental factors

safeguard children.

3
Q

When do most fatal diseases and accidents occur ?

A

before age 7.

4
Q

What age do permanent teeth come?

A

ages 6-12

5
Q

What is Embodied Cognition?

A

Embodied Cognition: physical activity fosters brain

development

6
Q

What is Selective Attention:

A

The ability to concentrate on some
stimuli while ignoring others (part of executive
control/executive function)

7
Q

What is a reduction in reaction time?

A

Reduction in reaction time: time it takes to respond

to a stimulus physically or cognitively

8
Q

What is automization?

A

The process in which repetition of a
sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence
routine, no longer requiring conscious thought

9
Q

Benefits of sports include:

A
  • better overall health.
  • less obesity.
  • appreciation of cooperation and fair play.
  • improved problem-solving abilities.
  • respect for teammates and opponents from many ethnicities and nationalities
10
Q

What are the Hazards of physical activity?

A
• loss of self-esteem as a result of 
criticism from teammates or coaches.
• injuries 
• reinforcement of prejudices 
• increases in stress 
• time and effort taken away from learning 
academic skills
11
Q

What % of children have chronic health needs?

A

About 13% of all children have special
health needs; some get worse during
middle childhood.

12
Q

What index does a child have to be over to be considered overweight?

A

being above the 85th percentile on BMI

13
Q

What index does an Adult have to be over to be considered overweight?

A

• a BMI (body mass index) of 25 to 29

14
Q

What numbers make an adult obese?

A

having a BMI of 30 or more

15
Q

What %tile makes a child obese?

A

being above the 95th percentile on BMI

• In childhood, 6 year olds have lowest BMI.

16
Q

Is Genetic Predisposition a setting point in obesity?

A

YUH

17
Q

What are the environmental factors of Childhood Obesity?

A

– cultural values
– lack of exercise
– poor quality food
– watching TV/video

18
Q

Overweight children ate most likely to experience ________ earlier than peers?

A

Puberty

19
Q

What is early puberty associated with?

A

Risk factors such as:
Teen pregnancy
Drug abuse
Family conflict

20
Q

What is Asthma?

A

Chronic inflammation of the airways.

21
Q

Waht % of school age children is affected by asthma?

A

14% which is 3x as common as it was in 1980

22
Q

What fraction of people do not outgrow asthma?

A

2/3

23
Q

What are Allergens?

A

dust, pet dander, etc.

24
Q

What is a hygeine hypthesis?

A

Microbiome needs exposure to some viruses and bacteria to develop.

25
Q

What is the Evidence of the possibel causes of asthma?

A

Urban kids, first borns, c section babies all have higher asthma rates.

26
Q

What is the primary prevention of asthma?

A

– better ventilation of schools and home
– decreased pollution
– eradication of cockroaches
– construction of more play areas

27
Q

What is the Secondary prevention of asthma?

A

– breast-feeding
– ridding the house of dust, pets, smoke and other allergens
– regular checkups

28
Q

What are the Tertiary preventions of asthma?

A

– use of injections and inhalers

– hypoallergenic materials

29
Q

What is Aptitude?

A

Potential to master a particular skill or body of knowledge.

30
Q

What are IQ tests?

A

Tests designed to measure intellectual aptitude. Think of Alfred Binet.

31
Q

What are achievement tests?

A

They measure proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, etc.

32
Q

What is the Flynn effect?

A

The rise in the average IQ over the decades.

33
Q

What is the Wechsler Intellegence Scale for Children?

A

An IQ test designed for school age children.

34
Q

Criticisms of IQ testing:

A

– No test can measure potential without also measuring achievement.

– Every test score reflects the culture of the people who wrote, administer and take it.

– Intellectual potential changes over the life span.

– Humans may have multiple intelligences.

35
Q

What does an IQ test detect?

A

• IQ tests can help detect learning
disabilities, giftedness, and other special
needs.

36
Q

What do IQ tests predict?

A

IQ scores predict later school achievement and to some degree, career attainment in
adulthood (biased but valid)

37
Q

What are the 3 types of intelligience according to sternberg?

A

Creative
Academic
Practical

CAP

38
Q

What is Academic Intellgience?

A

measured by IQ and achievement tessts to analyze ideas.

39
Q

What is creative intellgience?

A

Evidenced by imaginative endeavors to generate ideas?

40
Q

What is practical intelligence?

A

seen in everyday problem solving to implement ideas.

41
Q

Does Brain Activity correlate with intellgieince?

A

Not exactly its too difficult.

42
Q

What are the 3 brain function conclusions?

A

Brain development depends on experience.

Dendrite formation and myelination continue throughout life.

Children with disorders have different brian patterns that can change with training.

43
Q

What is neurdoiversity?

A

People have unique brain functions

44
Q

Children who require extra. help in order to learn are considered

A

children with special needs.

45
Q

First problems to be noticed in children with special needs are

A

slowness
impulsiveness
clumsiness
Disability becomes better or worse in adulthood depending on how they were treated as a child.

46
Q

What is Multifinality?

A

Multifinality: one cause can have many final symptoms

47
Q

What is Equifinality?

A

Equifinality: one symptom can have many causes.

48
Q

Describe ADHD

A
– great difficulty concentrating for 
more than a few moments.
– inattentive
– impulsive 
– overactive
49
Q

What is Comorbidity?

A

The presence of two or more
unrelated disease conditions at
same time

50
Q

In 1980 what % of US kids were diagnosed with ADHD

A

5%

51
Q

What % of boys are diagnosed with ADHD

A

80%

52
Q

What are some of the medications to treat ADHD?

A

Ritalin
Adderall
Strattera
ETC

53
Q

What is Specific Learning Disorder?

A

A marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by:

• Physical disability
• Intellectual disability
• unusually stressful home
environment

54
Q

What is an example of a reading disorder

A

Dyslexia

55
Q

What is an example of a written expression disorder

A

Dysgraphia

56
Q

What is an example of a math disorder

A

dyscalculia

57
Q

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

A

A developmental disorder marked by the inability to relate to other
people normally.

58
Q

What are the 3 levels of ASD?

A

Level 1: Requiring support
Level 2: Requiring substantial support
Level 3 Requires very substantial support

59
Q

What is Aspergers Syndrome?

A
a specific type of autistic 
spectrum disorder (some still have the diagnosis)
60
Q

What is concrete operational thought?

A

Piaget’s term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.

61
Q

What is Seriation?

A

Arranging in logical series

62
Q

What is Identity?

A

characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change.

63
Q

What is the Role of Instruction?

A

regarded a crucial by Vygotsky, especially in the zone of proximal development.

64
Q

What is information processing theory?

A

Cognition as the functioning of a computer.

65
Q

What is Sensory Register?

A

The detection of stimulus by any of the 5 senses?

66
Q

What is working memory?

A

The component of the information processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs.

67
Q

What is long-term memory?

A

Component of the information-processing system in which limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely.

68
Q

What is automization?

A

The ability to perform mental/behavioral processes with little thought, like tying a shoe.

69
Q

What is a knowledge base?

A

A body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new info in that area.

70
Q

What is a control procerss?

A

mechanisms that combine selective attention, metacognition, and emotional regulation.

71
Q

When does language rapidly advance>

A

before middle childhood ex. age 6.

72
Q

School age kids learn up to ____ words a day.

A

20

73
Q

School age kids are more flexible in what categories?

A

Vocabulary and pragmatics

74
Q

What are the 2 codes of language?

A

Formal Code

Informal Code

75
Q

What is Formal Code?

A

used in school and other formal situations

76
Q

What is Informal Code?

A

how ya talk with ya homies

77
Q

When do kids learn nuances?

A

age 10

78
Q

When will a bilingual child experience braing growth on the left side?

A

after 4+ years of age

79
Q

What is an NAEP?

A

Nations report card in reading and math

80
Q

Industry vs Inferirority

A

Erikson’s fourth developmental crisis

81
Q

The self concept in kids starts from what age?

A

ages 6-12

82
Q

What is Resilience?

A

The capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity.

83
Q

What is Cumalitive Stress?

A

relatively minor daily hassles that build to have a major impact.

84
Q

What is cognitive coping?

A

it comes through a positive interpretation of stressful events.

85
Q

What fosters stress?

A

Parentification

86
Q

ACEs test is

A

correlated with physical and mental health problems in adulthood.

87
Q

What can also affect temperment as well as ability?

A

Genes

88
Q

What is a shared enviorment?

A

Household influences are the same for two people.

89
Q

What is a NONshared enviornment?

A

siblings with different friends and teachers.

90
Q

Why do children need family?

A
provide basic material necessities.
–encourage learning.
–develop self-respect.
–nurture peer relationships.
–ensure harmony and stability.
91
Q

What is structure?

A

legal and genetic relationship among relatives in the same home.

92
Q

What is a Nuclear family?

A

alliance of one married couple living with their children and no one else.

93
Q

Kohlbergs 3 levels of morla reasoning are?

A

Preconventional=rewards+punishments

Conventional=social rules

Postconventional=moral principles