One reproductive epidode
reproduction from an ovum without fertilization, esp. as a normal process in some invertebrates and lower plants.
Multiple reproductive episodes
Lining of the uterus
Circulatory and Respiratory Systems are..
The gastrovascular cavity functions to distribute substances to body cells in ______ ______, but in _______ _________ a ________ ________ is needed.
Simple organisms, larger organisms, circulatory system
The three primary functions of the circulatory system are…
transport blood, provide the body organs with food and to help get rid of harmful byproducts. (The heart and the lung are the main organs in the circulatory system.)
What are 5 major components of the circulatory system
Heart, Arteries, Veins, Blood, Lungs
Describe an open circulatory system
Arthropods and mollusks have an open circulatory system. In this type of system, there is neither a true heart or capillaries as are found in humans. Instead of a heart there are blood vessels that act as pumps to force the blood along. Instead of capillaries, blood vessels join directly with open sinuses.
What is hemolymph and what it composed of
It is the “blood” for organisms with an OCS. It is made up of actual blood and interstitial fluid.
What are the openings in insect bodies called
Describe a closed circulatory system
The closed circulatory system exists in some mollusks and all higher invertebrates and the vertebrates. Here blood is pumped through a closed system of arteries, veins, and capillaries. Capillaries surround the organs, making sure that all cells have an equal opportunity for nourishment and removal of their waste products.
Distinguish between a single and double circulatory system
the blood is only pumped through the heart once in a single circulation system, but in a double circulation system, the blood doubles back by the heart again and can be mixed blood, de-oxygenated, etc. depending on where it’s coming from. Fish are the only organisms with a single circulatory system
Detail the Ecological Hierarchy
Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organisms Populations Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Population ecologists study…
Birth/Death Rates, density, dispersion
Community Ecologists study…
Interspecific interactions: predation, mutualism, interspecific competition
What are some factors influencing geographic distribution of species
Dispersal, habitat selection, biotic and abiotic factors
What is dispersal
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site or any breeding site to another. The act of dispersal involves three phases: departure, transfer, settlement and there are different fitness costs and benefits associated with each of these phases. may be contrasted with geodispersal, which is the mixing of previously isolated populations (or whole biotas) following the erosion of geographic barriers to dispersal or gene flow
What is habitat selection
habitat selection is an evolutionary game that serves as a mechanism for regulating populations in space, determining cues that organisms use to choose habitats, and assessing how spatial scale and patterns in the landscape limit habitat use.
Name some biotic dispersal factors
Name some abiotic dispersal factors
Climate: temperature, water, sunlight, wind
What are global climate patterns
any recurring characteristic of the climate. the mode of variability with the greatest effect on climates worldwide is the seasonal cycle.
Seasons result from the yearly orbit of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth’s rotational axis relative to the plane of orbit, variations of which may cause animals to go into hibernation or to migrate, and plants to be dormant.
What are the aquatic and terrestrial biomes that were discussed
Streams/Rivers, Estuaries, Temperate Grassland, Temperate Broadleaf Forest, tropical forest.
What are characteristics of Streams/Rivers
- The most prominent physical characteristic of streams and rivers is current
- A diversity of fishes and invertebrates inhabit unpolluted rivers and streams
- Damming and flood control impair natural functioning of stream and river ecosystems
What are some characteristics of estuaries
- An estuary is a transition area between river and sea
- Salinity varies with the rise and fall of the tides
- Estuaries are nutrient rich and highly productive
- An abundant supply of food attracts marine invertebrates and fish
What are some characteristics of temperate grasslands
Grassland biomes are large, rolling terrains of grasses, flowers and herbs. Latitude, soil and local climates for the most part determine what kinds of plants grow in a particular grassland. A grassland is a region where the average annual precipitation is great enough to support grasses,
What are some characteristics of Temperate Broadleaf Forests
these forests includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 33 to 66 m (100 to 200 feet) high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory that is roughly 9 to 15 m (30 to 50 feet) shorter than the canopy. The top layer of the understory is the sub-canopy which is composed of smaller mature trees, saplings, and suppressed juvenile canopy layer trees awaiting an opening in the canopy. Below the sub-canopy is the shrub layer, composed of low growing woody plants. Typically the lowest growing (and most diverse) layer is the ground cover or herbaceous layer.
What are some characteristics of Tropical Forests
The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly. Almost all rainforests lie near the equator, where temperatures are warm year round.
A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, who live in the same geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. Ex. Snakes in Arizona
Number of organisms
/individuals per unit area.
How individuals are arranged in space
What are the types of dispersion
Clumped, uniform, random
Characteristics of life history
Various investments in growth, reproduction, and survivorship
Explain r selected vs k selected organisms
r-selection species spread parental investment across many offspring whereas K-selected species focus theirs on a few.
What is a Metapopulation
A metapopulation consists of a group of spatially separated populations of the same species which interact at some level. With less populated demographics being more prone to extinction due to naturally occurring events
Describe the chambers of the heart
The right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the right ventricle.
The right ventricle pumps the oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle.
The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood to the body.
Describe ecological niche
The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (for example, by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (for example, limiting access to resources by other organisms,
What are keystone species
keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
What are the main functions of testosterone
testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair.
What are the main functions of estrogen
They promote the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, and are also involved in the thickening of the endometrium and other aspects of regulating the menstrual cycle. In males, estrogen regulates certain functions of the reproductive system important to the maturation of sperm[