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1

Phosphagen System, Phosphocreatine (PCr) System, and Creatine Phosphate System are typically known as what pathway?

ATP-PC system

2

What is the cellular location of the ATP-PC pathway?

Mitochondria and cytosol

3

What is the key enzyme of the ATP-PC pathway?

Creatine kinase

4

What is the co-factor of the ATP-PC pathway?

Mg

5

What are the reactants/stimulators of the ATP-PC pathway? (2)

ADP (low energy) and PCr

6

What are the products/inhibitors of the ATP-PC pathway? (2)

ATP (high energy) and Cr

7

What pathway/system produces ATP the fastest?

ATP-PC system

8

Excess reactants have what affect a pathway/enzyme?

stimulates

9

Scarce reactants have what affect on a pathway/enzyme?

inhibits

10

Excess products have what affect on a pathway/enzyme?

inhibits

11

Scarce products have what affect on a pathway/enzyme?

stimulates

12

What is secreted in response to high blood glucose?
- Lowers blood glucose to baseline values
- Increases glucose in fat and muscle cells
(Ex: Fat synthesis, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis)

insulin

13

What is secreted in response to low blood glucose?
- Increases blood glucose levels
- Causes the LIVER to release glucose from storage (glycogen)
- Causes the LIVER to make glucose (gluconeogenesis)

glucagon

14

What pathway breaks down carbohydrates anaerobically?

Glycolysis

15

Glycolysis is a precursor to what two pathways?

Krebs Cycle and ETS (electron transport system)

16

Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?

Cytosol

17

What are the key enzymes in glycolysis? (4)

1. Hexokinase/Glucokinase
2. Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
3. Pyruvate kinase
4. Lactate dehydrogenase

18

What is the rate limiting step in glycolysis?

PFK

19

What enzyme in glycolysis is stimulated by insulin and fructose, but inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate?

glucokinase

20

What are the reactants/stimulators of glycolysis? (6)

-Glucose
-ADP
-AMP
-NAD+
-Pi
-Insulin secretion

21

What are the products/inhibitors of glycolysis? (5)

-ATP
-NADH
-Pyruvate
o Fast – pyruvate to lactic acid and alanine
o Slow – pyruvate to mitochondria to aerobic metabolism
-Lactic acid
-Alanine

22

Citric acid cycle and Tricarboxylic acid cycle are synonymous name for which pathway?

Krebs cycle

23

Where does the Krebs cycle happen?

Mitochondrial matrix

24

What are the key enzymes in the Krebs cycle? (4)

- Isocitrate dehydrogenase
- alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
- succinate dehydrogenase
- malate dehydrogenase
("IASM")

25

What are the reactants/stimulants of Krebs cycle? (6)

- fat
- carbs
- protein oxidation
- acetyl CoA
- NAD+
- FAD

26

What are the products/inhibitors of Krebs cycle? (6)

- NADH
- FADH2
- GTP
- CO2
- ATP
- citrate

27

What is the location of ETS?

inner mitochondrial membrane

28

What is the key enzyme of the ETS?

dehydrogenases

29

What are the reactants/stimulants of the ETS? (5)

- ADP
- Pi
- NADH
- FADH2
- oxygen

30

What are products/inhibitors of the ETS? (3)

- ATP
- CO2
- H2O

31

FA oxidation is also known as what?

Beta oxidation

32

What are the four steps of B-oxidation?

(OHOT) oxydation, hydration, oxydation, thiolysis

33

What are the 2 essential fatty acids that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be acquired in the diet?

linoleic and alpha-linolenic

34

What is the location of B-oxidation?

mitochondrial matrix

35

Where in the cell is FA activated?

outer mitochondrial matrix

36

What is the key enzyme and rate limiting step in B-oxidation?

CPT 1 (carnitine complex)

37

What are the reactants/stimulants of FA oxidation? (9)

- exercise
- fasting
- high AMP (cAMP)
- AMPk
- Norepinephrine
- epinephrine
- ACTH
- low energy
- low blood glucose

38

What are the products/inhibitors of FA oxidation? (5)

- acetyl CoA
- insulin
- high glucose
- high malonyl CoA
- high energy

39

What are the only ketogenic amino acids?

leucine and lysine

40

Where in the cell does ketogenesis occur?

Mitochondrial matrix (Liver)

41

What are the key enzymes of ketogenesis? (2)

-HMG CoA Synthase (Rate limiting)
-Pyruvate carboxylase

42

What is the rate limiting step of ketogenesis?

HMG CoA Synthase

43

What is the Cofactor for ketogenesis?

Biotin

44

What are the reactants/stimulants of ketogenesis? (6)

-Acetyl CoA
-Low energy
-Low/no cholesterol
-Low blood sugar
-Epinephrine
-Glucagon

45

What are the products/inhibitors of ketogenesis? (4)

-Ketone bodies
-High energy
-High blood sugar
-Insulin

46

Glycogenolysis is also known as what?

glycogen degradation

47

Where in the cell does glycogen degradation occur?

Cytosol

48

What are the key enzymes of glycogen degradation? (5)

-Glycogen phosphorylase (Rate limiting)
-phosphoglucomutase
-Glucosyl-(4:4)-transferase
-Amylo-alpha-(1,6)-glucosidase
-Phosphorylase kinase (substrate – calmodulin)

49

What is the Cofactor of glycogen degradation?

Pyridoxal phosphate

50

What are the reactants/stimulants of glycogen degradation? (8)

-Low ATP
-Low levels of glucose
-Glucagon (liver)
-Epinephrine
-Norepinephrine
-Exercise/muscle contraction (Calcium)
-Low blood sugar
-Fasting (liver)

51

What are the products/inhibitors of glycogen degradation? (6)

-Glucose-1-phosphate
-Lots of ATP
-High levels of glucose
-Insulin
-High blood sugar

52

What amino acids are oxidizes in the muscles in relation to amino acid metabolism?

LIV GAA
(leucine, isoleucine, valine, glutamate, aspartate, asparagine)

53

Where in the cell does amino acid metabolism occur?

Cytosol (except Carbamoyl phosphate which is in mitochondrial matrix)

54

What are the key enzymes of amino acid metabolism? (2)

-Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
-Glutamine synthetase

55

What is the Cofactor for amino acid metabolism?

Pyridoxal phosphate

56

What are the reactants/stimulants of amino acid metabolism? (6)

-Low energy
-Low glucose
-Exercise
-Fasting
-Too much protein
-Protein turnover

57

What are the products/inhibitors of amino acid metabolism? (3)

-High energy
-High glucose
-Insulin

58

Where in the cell does fat synthesis occur?

Cytosol

59

What is the key enzyme and rate limiting step of fat synthesis?

Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (Rate limiting)

60

What is the Cofactor for fat synthesis?

Biotin

61

What are the reactants/stimulants of fat synthesis? (10)

-High Energy/ATP
-Insulin
-Glucose
-Acetyl CoA
-Galactose
-Fructose
-NADH
-FADH2
-Citrate
-Sugar

62

What are the products/inhibitors of fat synthesis? (3)

-Low energy
-ADP/AMP
-Glucagon

63

Where in the cell does cholesterol synthesis occur?

Cytosol

64

What is the key enzyme and rate limiting step for cholesterol synthesis?

HMG CoA Reductase (Rate limiting)

65

What are the reactants/stimulants of cholesterol synthesis?

-ATP
-NADPH
-Acetyl CoA
-O2
Insulin & Thyroxine
-Glucose & Fructose
-Low sterol levels

66

What are the products/inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis?

-ADP/AMP
-NADP+
-Glucagon
-Glucocorticoids
-Statins
-High sterols
-AMP Kinase

67

What is the location of gluconeogenesis?

mitochondria and the cytosol

68

What are the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis? (5)

- Glucose-6-Phosphate
- Fructose-1,6-BP
- PEP Carboxykinase
- Pyruvate Carboxylase
- Glycerol (3) phosphate dehydrogenase

69

What are the 2 cofactors of gluconeogenesis?

- biotin
- Mg2+

70

What are the reactants/stimulants of gluconeogenesis? (5)

-Glucagon
-Acetyl CoA
-Citrate
-ATP
-NADH

71

What are the products/inhibitors of gluconeogenesis?

-Glucose
-Insulin
-AMP/ADP
-Fructose-2,6-BP

72

What is the location of glycogen synthesis?

cytosol

73

What are the key enzymes of glycogen synthesis? (6)

-Glycogen Synthase (Rate limiting)
-Phosphoglucomutase
-UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
-Glycogen initiator synthase
-Glycogen synthase
-Glucosyl-4:6-transferase

74

What are the reactants/stimulants of glycogen synthesis? (5)

-ATP/high energy
-Lots of glucose
-Insulin
-Low glucagon
-Fructose

75

What are the products/inhibitors of glycogen synthesis? (5)

-AMP/ADP
-Low glucose
-Glucagon
-Muscle contraction
-Epinephrine

76

What are the two synonymous names of the Pentose Phophate pathway?

- Hexose monophosphate pathway
- Hexose monophosphate shunt

77

Oxidative reactions are ______ and non-oxidative reactions are _______.

irreversible; reversible

78

There is no ATP produced or consumed in the Pentose Phosphate pathway. T/F?

True

79

What are the key enzymes of the Pentose Phosphate pathway? (7)

-Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
-Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system
-Superoxide dismutase
-Myeloperoxidase
-Catalase
-Glutathione peroxidase
-Glutathione reductase

80

What are the reactants/stimulants of the PPP? (2)

-Glucose-6-phosphate
-NADP+

81

What are the products/inhibitors of the PPP? (3)

-6-Phosphoglucose S lactone
-NADPH
-Ribose-5-P

82

What is the location of Nucleotides - Purine Synthesis?

cytosol

83

What are the key enzymes of Nucleotides - Purine Synthesis? (2)

-Xanthine oxidase
-Ribonucleotide reductase

84

What are the reactants/stimulants of Nucleotides - Purine Synthesis?

?

85

What is the location of Nucleotides - Pyramidine Synthesis?

cytosol

86

What are the key enzymes of Nucleotides - Pyramidine Synthesis? (2)

-CAD
-Ribonucleotide reductase

87

What are the reactants/stimulants of Nucleotides - Pyramidine Synthesis?

?

88

What is the location of Alcohol metabolism?

cytoplasm of the liver

89

What is the location of MEOS (aka cytochrome P-450)?

endoplasmic reticulum

90

What are the key enzymes of Alcohol metabolism? (6)

-Alcohol dehydrogenase
-MEOS (aka: Cytochrome P-450)
-Catalase
-Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
-Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
-Krebs dehydrogenase

91

What is the reactant/stimulant of Alcohol metabolism?

NAD+

92

What are the products/inhibitors of Alcohol metabolism? (3)

-NADH
-Acetyl CoA
-Acetaldehyde