The branch of philosophy that deals with questions concerning the nature and source of knowledge is called
Philosophers have tradition defined _______________ as a true justified belief
____________ knowledge is knowledge that is based on experience, and it is also known ass empirical knowledge
A POSTERIORI KNOWLEDGE
__________________ is the claim that we cannot have true knowledge
The claim that sense experience is the sole source of knowledge about the world is called
A ____________ is a possible state of afairs that would prevent us from distinguishing a true belief from a false one
UNIVERSAL BELIEF FALSIFIER
When Descartes discovered his first centainty, that he exists,he claimed “______________” or “I think, therefore I am.”
COGITO ERGO SUM
Empiricists claim taht when we enter the world, our mind is like a blank slate, or a _______________
____________ is the claim that belief in God must be supported by objective evidence
_____________ is the belief in the monotheistic God
The claim that blief in God must be supported by objective evidence, and we dont have that evidence is called
______________ is any attempt to prove that existence of God using reason and experience alone
Agnosticism could also be called
_________________ knowledge is something we know prior to, or without, experience that gives us real information about our world
a priori knowledge
A being who contains the reason for its existence within its own nature is called a _______________
A priori knowledge is the type of knowledge that is
JUSTIIED INDEPENDTLY OF, OR PRIOR TO EXPERIENCE
__________ claims that reason is the primary source of knowledge about the world
What claims are made by the position of constructivism?
The claim that knowledge is neither already in the mind nor passively received from experience, but that our mind constructs knowledge our of materials experience
______________ claims that certainty is neccessary for us to have knowledge
Which philosopher used methodological skepticism asd a strategy for finding certainty?
What was the purpose of Descartes’ quest for certainty?
to find if there was any belief that was certain
Which of the following truths would a rationalist consider to be a priori truths?
Ideas that are inborn and that the mind already contiains priori to experience are clalled
According to locke, the kind of properties that do not reflect reality as it really is are
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY
What is not an example of a priori knowledge?
ALL BACHELORS ARE UNMARRIED MEN
ALL UNICORNS ARE ONE HORNED CREATURES
EITHER THE TEAM WILL WIN THEIR NEXT GAME OR IT WONT
What is not an example of posteriori knowledge
TADPOLES BECOME FROGS
WATER FREEZES AT 32 DEGREES
TOUCHING A HOT STOVE HURTS
What are the three anchor points for rationalism?
REASON is the primary or most superior source of knowledge
SENSE EXPERIENCE is a nunreliable and inadequate route to knowledge
THE FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS ABOUT THE WORLD CAN BE KNOWN A PRIORI they are either innate or self evident
What are some issues within philosophy of religion
DOES GOD EXIST
IF SO, WHAT IS GOD’S NATURE
HOW DO WE DECIDE WHETHER OR NOT GOD EXISTS?
DO WE NEED EVIDENCE OR PROOF? OR IS FAITH ALL WE NED
IF YOU ACCEPT THE TRADITIONAL GOD, WHY DOES HE ALLOW BAD THINGS HAPPEN TO GOOD PEOPLE
_____________ is the claim that one god created the world and sustains it while transcending it
What could fall under the category evidentialism?
______________ developed the position of fideism
The principle of sufficient reason states that
THE PRINCIPLE THAT EVERYTHING THAT EXISTS MUST HAVE A REASON THAT EXPLAINS WHY IT EXISTS AND HAVE IT HAS THE PROPERTIES THAT IT DOES
___________ developed a version of the teleological argument
What are some critcisms of the cosmological argument?
THE WORLD CONTAINS THINGS WHOSE EXISTENCE DEPENDS UPON SOME CAUSE
EVERYTHING THAT EXISTS IS EITHER UNCAUSED OR CAUSED TO EXIST BY ANOTHER
THERE CANNOT BE AN INFINITE REGRESS OF CAUSES, SO THERE MUST BE AN UNCAUSED FIRST CAUSE
AN UNCAUSED FIRST CAUSE IS WHAT WE MEAN BY GOD
The cosmological argument tries to answer what questions?
IS THE “FIRST CAUSE” NECESSARILY THE MONOTHELISTIC GOD
WHY SHOULD GOD BE EXEMPT FROM CAUSED BY ANOTHER
Which argument for the existence of God is based on the idea that evidence of design in the universe implies a designer?
In his argument for God, ______________ uses the analogy of a watch found upon the ground
____________ tries to convince people to believe in God by showing that believing in God is the safest bet
What best describes the relationship between faith and reason according to Kierkegaard?
When faith and reason conflict, faith should be given priority over reason
Belief in God must be feely chosen, it cannot be compelled by logic in any way
Which theistic argument did the theory of evolution raised problems for?
____________ said, “Christianity is absurd.”
What are the premises in the First Cause version of the cosmological argument?
GOD IS PERFECTLY GOOD, OMNISCIENT, OMNIPOTENT, EVIL EXISTS
IF GOD EXISTS AND IS A BEING WHO IS AS SAID ABOVE, THEN THERE WOULD BE NO EVIL IN THE WORLD AND THEREFORE DOES NOT EXIST.
What are criticisms David Hume made of the design argument?
The analogy between human creations and the universe is weak
This argument does not prove the traditional monotheistic God.