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People will be happy if they have stuff and aren’t oppressed, prince will be hated if he takes the property/women of his people


Hobbes on Property

people will be happy if they have stuff, but that requires a strong state (equal taxes, equal protection), property is subject to the sovereign, natural property (primogeniture) and assigned (randomly assigned)


Locke on Property

Labor Theory of Property (property comes from human labor), but people should only acquire to a reasonable extent


Rousseau on Property

: private property is the source of inequality


Imperialism in the 19th Century

-Colonies must be incorporated with the Colonial Power
This creates Industrialization
----Integrates markets
----drives empire
Underdevelopment is Result of Imperialism
------Colonies become source of material but that's all what they do
------Have no improvement just constant providing to Colonial Power


Smith on Property

Wealth is measured by land /// tax property so it’s useful


Wollstonecraft on Property

Women can’t be virtuous because they can’t own their own property or labor


Hegel on Poverty

Hegel: If you want to alleviate poverty you can give it to them or you can give them work but then there will be over production...There is not big enough market -- If there is overproduction you go international, if nobody wants your goods then you go to war with them /// Solution? = The State


Hegel on War

Agree with Malthus;Do not go against the state or it will turn to war
The state is the absolute power on earth


Liberalism (freedom)----------------

---- 3 types
Classical Theories
--Starts with Locke
-Ends with Smith
Economic Liberalism
---Leave markets alone
--Starts with Smith
--Ends with Malthus
Utility / Politcal
---Act as peoples reps, achieve for majority
--Starts with Bantham
--Ends with Mill


Malthus on Property

law of diminishing return= The more you use land the more it takes to produce food Solution= Technology -- Problem: The increases made of food would be canceled through rise of population


Ricardo on Property

: big disparity with Landlord -- (Smith --big problem is merchant);
Ricardian idea of Rent = Landlords control rent;


Bentham on Gov.

Government = greatest good was done for the greatest number.
Maximize people’s happiness via punishments and rewards
Punish behavior that diminishes the greatest good and reward behavior that helps the greatest good

4 Roles
Subsistence and Security
Abundance and Equality
--Felicific Calculus
Maximizing Pleasure and minimizing pain


Rousseau on Poverty

Rousseau: Origin of inequality is Private Property and people who let this happen;General Will Solves inequality


Marx on Property

Private property should be abolished in favor of communal property;
Shouldn’t be an issue because 10% of the population only has private property because the other 90% doesn’t


Role of the state

“good laws and good arms,” good laws protect the people, good arms enforce the law.


Hobbes role of state

Hobbes: keep the people happy(with stuff)→ protect stuff→ strong state→ revenue from taxes(power)----Where does the state derive its power? = Social Contract/Taxation


Locke role of state

Locke: protect individual property through laws


Rousseau State of Nature:

Perfect liberty; basically happy; never existed
"man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains,"


Rousseau on Role of State:

government= agent of the sovereig
General Will is Sovereign
---law is expression of General Will
--Each person becomes a legislator by participating in General Will
---Individuals are Subjects to obey the laws they created
--Everyone is law maker and law obeyer
--General Will is always right Because it is an expression of the truth


Hobbes State of Nature

People are bad - seeking power,
desires, continuous war, fighting; right of nature= people are bad so you need to defend yourself, self-preservation
1. State of Accumulating Power
------People want power
2. Fear of Death
---People fear death


Role of state Hobbes:

keep the people happy→ protect stuff→ strong state→ revenue from taxes
Where does the state derive its power? = Social Contract/Taxation


Role of state Locke

Locke: protect individual property through laws


Role of state Rousseau

: agent of the sovereign, enforce the laws decided by the general will, laws enshrine inequality because they protect some more than others---law is expression of General Will ---General Will is always right because it is an expression of the truth


Role of state Smith

: 1) defense
2) justice/legal administration
3) public works
4) basic education → revenue from taxes,
government should regulate in the best interest of the consumer


Role of state Malthus

: don’t intervene to help the poor, let them die because ultimately that will reduce poverty


Role of state Ricardo

: corrupt landlords benefit at the expense of everyone else


inequality; Tocqueville

- Democracy does not HAVE to lead to inequality. We can stop it through the democratic process,which is supposed to educate people.
- Equality can never be complete, because there are always inequalities of talent and intelligence.
- Yet the more equal conditions become, the more noticeable and irritating the slightest inequalities become
- democracy as an equation that balanced liberty and equality, concern for the individual as well as for the community.
- radical equality could lead to the materialism of an expanding bourgeoisie and to the selfishness of individualism


Role of state Veblen

State shouldn’t bend to will of owners of industry (ie through protective tariffs)


Role of state Bentham

: Principle of utility: provide the greatest good for the greatest number; Gov. ---> Max. Happiness


Role of state Mill

: Principle of Utility, Harm Principle, (contradiction…) ; Limited Government= Do not interfere unless one is in Harm

1. Security
2. Protection
3. Taxation
Secure property and allow people
to develop economically
- ensure equality of opportunity

- Govt needed to act as the
delegates for the people


Role of state Bentham

Wollstonecraft: Needs to just allow for women to be included


Role of state/ gov. = Hegel

Hegel: Arbiter, requires a constitution, interdependence with individuals /// Do not go against the state or it will turn to war The state is the absolute power on earth - if the state tells you to do something you must do it // Purpose of the Government= Protect individual property


Role of state Weber

Defined State as: "monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”
- certain authoritarian aspects of his idea of democracy
- thought nationalism was good b/c it could invigor otherwise apathetic people to take part in public affairs
- political education in Great Britain => empire building and liberal democracy
- elements of the state: legitimacy, violence, territoritality
(1) System of administration and law.
(2) It is a symbol of collective action which means whatever the state performs is always for the general public
(3) A modern state exercises domination over the community.
(4) Domination of the state extends over the members of the association who are natural members that are members by birth.
(5) According to Weber the state is a public organisation and its authority extends over all the inhabitants (members of the association) of the geographical area.
(6) The state is independent. If it is not independent it would not be possible for it to exercise control over the members of the association.
(7) The state is capable of taking decisions and selecting preferences.
(8) When a political organisation is the state it is also capable of taking action with autonomy. Max Weber has viewed the state from both legal and sociological points of view. According to Weber the state is a collective legal body which has coercive power.


Role of state Marx

Should be run by the Proletariat, oversee the use of communal property, national bank, provide free education, improve technology and production techniques



working class
wealthy class



Laws need to be regularly administered; state should be involved in the market because free accumulation leads to inequality


Locke on inequality

equal in the state of nature, inheritance is a double right; freedom of person (natural right) and right before any other man to inherit with his brethren his father's goods. (explains why inequality exists.


Rousseau on inequality

: natural inequality, contrived inequality, private property is the root of inequality, specialization of labor increases inequality, general will is his solution


Smith on inequality

---Fellow Feeling; Moral feelings towards others
Virtue: People will not pay others less than substance wage:... does not like monopolies exacerbate inequality, doesn’t like excessive profits,


Malthus on inequality

inequality is produce from those who have children when they should not... Prevent through celibacy; immoral: contraceptives


Ricardo on inequality

—Value of labor is measured in time not labor —-People work longer and got less when paid by labor —-Wages and profits become inversely related


Tocqueville: role of state

- state should support religion, but not mandate it
- Public Education


Veblen on inequality

: Comes from division of labor and conspicuous consumption


Inequality Hegel

: Comes from the division of labor but brings dependance asa good thing


Inequality Marx

Comes from division of labor in the capitalist system, can only be fixed through radical revolution; dependance as bad thing because workers become alienated from their product.


Individual v. community

1) Ruler who wants to maintain power 2) Nobles who want to take power and oppress the people 3) The people who just want to not be oppressed


HobbesIndividual v. community

Hobbes believe state has absolute right and people must obey like Hegel believes


LockeIndividual v. community

: body politic, people form alliances, have to set up rules to coexist, come together to protect property, individual>society


Individual v. community Rousseau

society>individual; General Will


Individual v. community Hegel

: State> Individual


Individual v. community List

: State > Individual


Individual v. community Marx

Capitalist > Workers


Poverty Machiavelli

: Laws need to be regularly administered; State should be involved in the market because free accumulation leads to problems of inequality--> involvement in the market makes the state indispensable


Rousseau poverty

: Origin of inequality is Private Property and people who let this happen;General Will Solves inequality


Hegel on Industrialization

=> Division of labor => Dependency on people to do work to benefit community=> Then leads to classes (lower, middle, upper) => Conflict => State Involvement


Hegel on Property

=> Social Dimension => Property is declared through occupancy (possession) through Marking, Seizing, and Manufacture (labor)


Hegel on State

(sovereign); state is always right
=> Industrialization incapable => all men are both producer and consumer=> leads to conflict=> states intervenes


Smith Values

Value in use
Ex. Water is high value
Money no use
---The Value of use should be apparent
2. Exchange value
---Ex. Water has low value of exchange ;Money high value of exchange Price

Real Price--- Labor expended by the person who acquired it

Exchange -- how much you can command for its sale --measured in labor

Exchange Price
Labor (real price); Rent;


Define liberalist-

- Limit power of state, freedom to own property, equality


Relationship between Adam smith, Capitalism, and liberalism

Smith says fellow feeling is crucial for capitalism and liberalism so landlords
Human has tendency to barter which is what Capitalism is.```



the nation is a socially constructed community because people identify with other people in the community they don’t actually know; people connect in relation to each other


Keynes on inequality:

natural inequality in the system;
—> the cross of wealth can be limited by trying to make the rich people pay more, some activities in the economy need the desire of people of making money solely, should be encouraged, people need to make money better than them killing each other
Social Aspects: need the motive of making money rather than fighting over power


Keynes on Gov.

Keynes Argues Government MUST intervene
EMPLOY people, to get them spending again
Build roads, infrastructure (trump wall)
STIMULATE the consumer propensity in order to generate demand
NOT permanent
Leads to a place where there is FULL EMPLOYMENT
regulate quantity of money


Keynes on Money

2 Purposes:
1. facilitates exchange without being an actual object,
2. also a storage of wealth,


Hobson Main Ideas

1. Imperialism is hindering the local economy because we are focusing more resources abroad
2. Ultra-Imperialism (Inter-Imperialism)
lead to global markets; He thinks imperialism is bad; local markets are not enough and capable of producing more so we need to move our movements of local markets—> global market
---This is important yet it will lead to higher inequality and in order to lean from higher inequality the local development should be in a form of WAGES——> Consumption power
--- Wages will drive consumption power and this will in effect drive the local economy to be better
---Imperialism leads to war, war----> resources and this will lead to global expansion of markets,
Ultra Imperialism will focus into globalization, local——> Global
Focus on the global rather than the local
NEGATIVE ASPECT this destroys LOCAL ECONOMY Hobson focuses his ideas on free trade and we should have exchanges between the economy but should not control peoples resources, his critique is on imperialism rather than trade
Imperialism: you receive but don’t give in return; one of the aspects is that Imperialism manipulates the controlled subjects that they are part of a greater being
Trade: a balance of giving and receiving


Hobson on Trade

Hobson focuses his ideas on free trade and we should have exchanges between the economy but should not control peoples resources, his critique is on imperialism rather than trade
----Imperialism: you receive but don’t give in return; one of the aspects is that Imperialism manipulates the controlled subjects that they are part of a greater being
----Trade: a balance of giving and receiving


Keynes on Poverty

Solution for fellow-feeling of rich; Government should create fellow-feeling; Keynes argues the government should represent people; Involve itself in the economy that have technical problem; Gov. can intervene by priming the economic


Marx how society will create working class Revolution

Industrialization ---> Division of Labor---> Class conflicts---> Revolution


Divison of Labor

Division of labor = people become more connected/// Industrialization = leads to dependence/// You work you benefit and so does the community -- Success of one person is economic growth of the entire community = rise to inequality


Mill on Gov. / Liberty / State

Government= Limited government......
Two Points On Liberty ------Concept of individual freedom/liberty
---Tyranny of the Majority

---Don’t interfere with someone unless they are going to harm others, limited government, market for ideas and goods, objected to government interference
The entire population needs to participate in government for it to be representative and able to make decisions that are in the interest of the greatest good for the greatest number


Marx on Property

Property is in the hands of the bourgeoisie, proletariat must work to gain property, should be in the hands of everyone, value comes from labor and materials, people want to get stuff,


Marx on state

The State:
Revolution needed to change the state, state is the proletariat


Marx on inequality

Proletariat is dominated by the bourgeoisie (workers dominated by owners), industrialization causes inequality,


Kautsky on Ultra imperialism

Monopolies will be so great that they combine together to create Multinational corporations ex---McDonalds
//Dominating food section
Ironically will lead to peace and sustainability
Everyone will have access to same goods, happy global economy

Ultraimperialism = efficiency = peace
Peace and capitalism therefore can coexist


Veblen ideas most know for?

--- conspicuous consumption:
consume in order to be seen
consuming stuff because others
will think that you are successful
--- invidious comparison: we want
things that we don't need but
other people have. THis changes
our behaviour and causes
us not to pay attentiion to the
political world around us


Division of Labor Marx

Industrialization => class formation
Class formation is from industrial production
--There needs to be a violent revolution by the proletariat against the bourgeois
-purpose of the economy: produce in order to have commodities for exchange, for accumulation
--Capitalists are getting surplus value by underpaying laborers
-Money to purchase commodity and then sell it for more money
-2 Types of Alienation::Worker from product made, Worker from product on market
-Labor is a commodityBut that is all you have when you’re born
You have a commodity to sell but you don’t get to set the price of your commodity
-abolishment of private property


inequality Weber

- says Marx's view is too simplistic
- groups look after their own interest => inequality
- increasing bureaucracy that accompanies capitalism => differences between those members of the working class who are manual workers and those who offer services to capitalism
- dimensions of stratification: class, status, party
- power derives from the individual's ability to control
various "social resources".things like:Land,Capital, Social respect, Physical strength,Intellectual knowledge,


Division of Labor weber

specialization => society becomes more interdependent and has a less common purpose. loss of sense of community b/c purpose of bureaucracies = get job done efficiently


industrial vs cap. weber

-modern capitalism is a rational mode of economic life because it depends on a calculable process of production. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
-search for exact calculability underpins such institutional innovations as monetary accounting, centralization of production control, separation of workers from the means of production, supply of formally free labour, disciplined control on the factory floor etc
-Legal formalism and bureaucratic management: good for sociopolitical conditions for industrial capitalism
- the pursuit of profit is virtuous
- b/c Calvinists believe in pre-destination, look for clues to see who is saved in their wordly successes. Profit and material gain = sign of God's grace


List: compare to other philosophers

utlitarianism: sacrifice its gain and enjoyment to secure the strength and skill of the future.
An individual may prosper from activities which harm the interests of a nation.


List: main ideas

- anti imperialism
- anti colonisalism
Countries need to isolate and focus on thesmeselves first => strong nation-states with strong infrastructure.
1. It is a means of national defence: it facilitates the concentration, distribution and direction of the army.
2. t is a means to the improvement of the culture of the nation....
3. It secures the community against dearth and famine, and against excessive fluctuation in the prices of the necessaries of life.
4. It promotes the spirit of the nation,

free competition between two nations which are highly civilised can only be mutually beneficial in case both of them are in a nearly equal position of industrial development,

Infant industries argument

Close Off
State invest in infrastructure
Get to level to compete
Open Up
State can now trade

(Like Hegel idea that states cannot interact until they are both on same level to compete)


Anderson; Main Ideas

1. Imagined Communities----> lead to creation of nations (is a socially constructed community because people identify with other people in the community they don’t actually know; people connect in relation to each other)
2. Civic and Ethnic Communities- Based off of Civic Ideas and Ethnic Ideas
3. Rise of the Print Media
4. Fall of Latin Language ——> leads to nationalism as the use of the same language leads to interconnectedness amongst individuals

- Nations are socially constructed


Compared to other philosophers: Anderson

- thought that liberal and Marxist theorists neglegted to appreciate power of nationalism
- contrary to Hobbes: state, not monarch = sovereign


Lenin; role of government

-says: gurantee trusts
- says: aid to developing countries => dependency

Europe bought support of people through: economic improvement, political reform, nationalism


Lenin; imperialism

Imperialism - concentration of production and capital in the form of monopoly => birth of fiance capital => export of capital, not commodities => formation of cartels and trusts => complete division of world


Hilferding; key ideas

- wrote Finance Capital
- role of banking and finance, arguing that the banks’ increasing influence over industry led to monopoly and cartels and through them to economic imperialism and war.
- Imperialism: capital is concentrated and centralized because production is bigger and bigger scale = monopoly


Hilferding capitalism vs Imperialism

- finance capital drives individuals, creates nationalism: e.g. shipbuilders see connection to overall effort, identify with empire, think it'll benefit them
- monopoly: stable profits, less competition. one sector (e.g. banks) benefittinf over others).
- banks benefitting => finance capitalism


Schumpeter; key ideas

- creative destruction
- argued that "pure capitalist" socities would be anti-imperiaist because it's irrational
- entrepreneurs = prime cause of economic development
- wherever most capitalist: most antiimperialist.
-Strongest capitalist tendencies: aversion to war
- belief: globalization is good; it connects people
- argues that US is least likely to be imperialist b/c it's never had a formal emoire
- free trade: no class has interest in forcible expansion


Tocqueville; division of labor

specialization => society becomes more interdependent and has a less common purpose. loss of sense of community b/c purpose of bureaucracies = get job done efficiently


tocqueville; compared to others

- unlike Marx, does not believe there is a universal path that civilizations are on
- administrators are like members of the proletariat
- struggle of means of administration
- state as embodiment of General Will


tocqueville; main ideas

-people competing with each other to accumulate makes them equal
- Americans are self interested => cease to be their own master => have to participate politically
- critical of people who acquire wealth at the expense of other
- take freedom for granted, might lose it
- democracy in America requires political participation
- democracy as an equation that balanced liberty and equality, concern for the individual as well as for the community.