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Flashcards in Mid-term 1 Deck (61):

Machiavelli three types of people

--Want to remain in power
---Want to achieve more power by oppressing the people
---Want only not to be oppressed
People and Prince must have alliance


Machiavelli foundation of state?

combinations of good arms and good laws
----good arms to protect laws and good laws to protect the people


Rousseau on Sovereign

General Will is Sovereign
---law becomes an expression of General Will
--Each person becomes a legislator by participating in General Will
---Individuals are Subjects to obey the laws they created
--Everyone is law maker and law obeyer
--General Will is always right Because it is an expression of the truth


`Explain Feudalism

strict hierarchy
King = ruler
Nobles = landlord
people = serfs
--Nobles were tenets of the king
--King allowed them to have land; they would rent land to surfs for profit
---They fight and claim land together so the reward for the knight; land which he gives to them after successful claim-- Rents out land to serfs
Serfs = tied to the land
---Farmers -subsistence economy -grew enough to eat
taxed by landlord in food


Machiavelli Subsistence Economy

Make food enough for yourself
adaptation- adapt to the land to survive `]


Machiavelli Formal Economy

Use land around to grow plenty of food then sell for profits


Machiavelli explains development of Market Town

Courts made for law to be administered this made people flock to area and then need living condition which turned into market towns --cause people to move away from pure subsistence
-People start to specialize in different work
-------inn, food stand, courts
Small level of urbanization
------division of labor


Law according to Machiavelli

People appointed to go around land to administer justice and law
King would appoint law enforcer to live in area by noble
This would create
Regular enforcement of law


Machiavelli thoughts on virtue

King must obey law and know what virtue is
---unless people have no virtue than do not have virtue towards them


Machiavelli thoughts on fortuna

pg. 80 "Men prosper as long as fortune and policy are in accord, and when there is a clash they fall."
---King must have good fortune in order to have good policy
--Kings must have good fortune to stay in power


Hobbes; State of Nature and Assumptions

People are bad - seeking power,
desires, continuous war, fighting; right of nature= people are bad so you need to defend yourself, self-preservation
1. State of Accumulating Power
------People want power
2. Fear of Death
---People fear death


In Hobbes, how does one escape state of nature?

Two natural passions enable people to escape the state of nature: fear and reason;
Fear makes natural man want to escape the state of nature;
reason shows him how to escape.


Machivell: State of nature

people are good - Citizens do not crave power


Hobbes Social Contract

---give up your right to do whatever you want, in exchange others agree to not as well ----
Hobbes concludes that there must be some common power, some sovereign authority, to force people to uphold the contract.


Hobbes; How does state derive its power?

--the Social contract
-Needs revenue
--------everyone should pay the same for protection of the sovereign
-------poor people need more protection; rich pay more in taxes
---------tax consumption, rich consume more so they pay more
==Assumes a Market Economy 1


Machiavelli; Outside State of Nature / Civil Society

All subject to the law; however there are costs and benefits of ruling; rulers want to remain in power, the nobles want to achieve power of oppression and the people don't like to be governed, the social contract in this sense is to intermingle the needs and wants of the rulers nobles and the people to be in coexistence with one another; "All under the government need to be subject to the rule of law."


Thomas Locke Background

1632- 1704
went to oxford
works in government in 1667
Leaves England to go to holland--returns 1688
---enters into argument with Thomas Hobbes
-sovereign is held by the people
On board of trade (colonies) in 1696


Rousseau background

Never knew mother-- father =watch maker
lost family house
1728 left Geneva
age 18; fell in love with widow
---she paid for him to think
---he had life of leisure
= became secretary to the French ambassador in Venice but was fired--> believed justice could never be accomplished in a system with so much inequality---had 5 kids with his mistress and sent them all to an orphanage
1755: Discourse on Inequality
1762: On Social Contract
Both concerned with Nature of inequality


Locke State of nature

Chaotic but not state of War…. Everyone is good but only a few bad apples;
---people are born free and equal, everyone is the police and judge;
---war is unneccesary because people can have whatever they want (problem=presupposes equality of access to resources)


Rousseau state of nature

Perfect liberty; basically happy; never existed
"man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains,"


Machiavelli Social Contract

all are subject to the law


Hobbes Social Contract

---give up your right to do whatever you want, in exchange others agree to not as well;
---Hobbes concludes that there must be some common power, some sovereign authority, to force people to uphold the contract.
---rule of law ensures everyone follows the social contract


Locke Social Contract

By entering into civil society, the individual submits him or herself to the majority, and agrees to abide by the rules and decisions of the majority.


Rousseau Social Contract

General Will= association that allows individual freedom, always right because it's an expression of "the truth" at the end of the process of ration inquiry; people lose and gain, but overall the social contract makes people happier


Machiavelli Sovereignty

Ruler is subject to the rule of law


Hobbes; Sovereignty

Sovereign has absolute power, is not subject to law or else society returns to warlike state of nature;
1) must be perpetual
2) needs to be strong
3) needs to keep the people happy


Locke; Sovereignty

Everyone in civil society is subject to the rule of law.


Rousseau; Sovereignty

NOT concentrated in one person, but rather lies in the people and their general will


Machiavelli; Government and State

Foundations of the state: combinations of good arms and good laws — good arms to protect laws and good laws to protect the people;`function is to preserve its existance and the power of the ruler


Hobbes: Government and State roles

State/sovereign must keep the people happy and people are happy if they have stuff, but this requires rules which requires that the state is strong which requires revenue--> taxation is part of the social contract1


Locke; Government / State

The purpose of government is to protect individual property and this requires laws


Rousseau; Government and state roles

--government= agent of the sovereign
---Law is the expression of the general will and individuals must objey them; executive power can't be with public, so they need an agent to enforce the laws;


Machiavelli: Rebellion and Justice

The state must preserve its own existence and the power of the ruler; Needs the support of the people to fight wars and prevent overthrow by the nobles, so keep the people happy


Hobbes: Rebellion and Justice

Sovereign must be strong to demonstrate power to people inside and outside of the state ---social contract gives up right to rebel because they give up such a right when they give up the right to govern themselves.


Locke; Rebellion and Justice

There needs to be laws to ensure the equal treatment of people and to protect property; no man is exempt from the law; government can be dissolved only when it is unjust or when a conquering force dissolves civil society


Rousseau; on Rebellion and Justice

When someone disagrees with the general will they can 1) leave 2) quietly accept the general will and work on ways to change it; censorship is acceptable to regulate what people express; censors= the people's mouthpiece, how society express its opinion


Machiavelli; on Property and Labor

People will be happy and not oppressed if they have stuff!


Hobbes; on property and labor

Property is not subject to the people but rather to the sovereign, to use property however way he chooses for the good of the people; as property and individual rights did not exist and any that were accepted could be revoked by the sovereign at any given time. -Property belongs to Sovereign


Locke; property and Labor

Labor Theory of Property= people own stuff because they've put labor into it--> creates inequality; property comes from human labor!; Social Dimension to Property= external recognition of ownership --------------------------------a person may only acquire as many things in this way as he or she can reasonably use to their advantage. —Locke Believed owning land improved quality of life


Rousseau; Property and Labor

Creation of private property created a new social order and a new kind of inequality; specialization of labor increases inequality because allows one group to separate itself from another; makes it harder to people to agree; changes natural equality and requires laws, but laws protect some more than others; specialization of labor results in leisure time, which should be used in a productive way that benefits everyone


Machiavelli; inequality

Laws need to be regularly administered; State should be involved in the market because free accumulation leads to problems of inequality--> involvement in the market makes the state indispensable


Hobbes; inequality



Locke; inequality

Inheritance is a double right--> freedom of person (natural right) and right before any other man to inherit with his brethren his father's goods (not a natural right)--> explains why inequality exists now but how was it created? LTP


Rousseau; inequality

Natural inequality= physical; laws enshrine inequality; private property is the origin of inequality; contrived inequality= created by private property; if we're not careful, inequality will progress and everyone will have nothing and it will be the rule of the strongest; General Will is his solution to inequality`


Smiths big idea

Critique of Mercantilism ; Atlantic colonialism and trade; create a reasonable amount of profit is ok but should be derived from land/labor; arguing for a more open market, but wouldn't support a market that harmed the consumers; argues for the removal of regulations that inhibit the sale of labor in a competitive marketplace because everyone is born with the ability to labor and should be able to sell it freely


Malthus big idea of population

Population increases geometrically and food supply increases arithmetically; law of diminishing returns (as you cultivate more land it gets less productive so you have to put in more work to get less out of it; technoloy is only temporarily helpful (any gains are canceled out by population increases; the vicious cycle can only be broken by preventative checks (late marriage, celibacy)


Ricardo big idea

Antagonism of class interests; value of labor.... Labor should now be measured in time not in labor. New Urbanization emerges


Smith view on land

Wealth is measured in land--> so merchants aren't creating wealth


Smiths view of labor

Labor adds value;
---division of labor increases dexterity, saves timeand increases productivity;
----Wages of Labor= degree to which people are paid for the labor they preform, increase as the wealth of a nation increases; really hates slavery because it's someone profitting from someone's else labor;
---Adam smith says no master would pay a worker less then subsistence wage because fellow feeling


Smith's view of property

Against monopolies; tax land so property is useful!; people sell their labor to buy stuff; money is just a standard bookeeping device


Smith's view of government

Critical of the government encouraging monopolies that don't benefit the consumer;
1) defense
2) justice/legal enforcement
3) public works
4) basic education;
-----critical of governement protective regulations that benefit merchants at the expense of the consumer and exacerbates inequality; doesn't like colonies, suck for everyone;
---revenue comes from taxes


Smiths other ideas d

Human Propensity-- Truck,Barter,Exchange -> you'll produce a better product so you can get a better product (fellow feeling);
Value in Use= how useful it is;
Exchange Value= what an object is worth in a specific market;
Real Price= labor expended by the person who acquired it;
Exchange Price= how much you can command for its sale; ------His whole model hinges on people having virtue and fellow-feeling (he's a moralist);
money represents exchangable value of labor at particular time in a particular place, all about abundance and scarcity affect price, market conditions determine price; no one would sell for less than real price and no one would buy it for less becase everyone is virtuous!; individual knows how much thier labor is worth and won't accept less


Malthus view of land

Law of Diminishing Returns= land is overworked, so it produces less and requires more labor


Malthus view of labor

create Workhouses for the poor, not asylums


Malthus; property



Malthus; Government/state

Malthus: don’t intervene to help the poor, let them die because ultimately that will reduce poverty


Malthus; other

Anti-welfare arguments come from Malthus;
1) primary resource=food (if food is scarce people will have fewer kids or die, return to equilibrium)
2) law of diminishing returns is unavoidable (cultivate more land, getting less and working harder)
3) technology could improve production temporarily (any gains canceled by demographic growth)
4) break the cycle via preventative checks


Ricardo; on land / property

----Landlords profit no matter what and are non-productive (they reduce people's profits which reduces innovation); grades of land graph, rent based on productivity and cost to produce;
---landlords can make it possible to work and not have subsistance;
---landlords control the government...


Ricardo; on labor

—Value of labor is measured in time not labor
—-People work longer and got less when paid by labor —-Wages and profits become inversely related


Ricardo; Government/ State

Controlled by landlords; Corn laws; their policies lead to starvation


Ricardo, other

---antagonism of class interests= classes have different interests, landlords are the big problem because they reduce people's profits;
---Corn Laws= tariffs on imports to drive up domestic corn prices, artificial shortage