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Flashcards in Final Deck (66):
1

Family Cicindelidae

Tiger beetles
Large compound eyes
Pincher mandibles
Larvae build tubes in soil

2

Carabidae

Ground beetles
Elytra striated
Nocturnal predators
Pronotum more pronounced than darling beetles

3

Dyticidae

Predacious diving beetle
Aquatic
Carry air bubble under elytra

4

Gyrinidae

Whirligig beetle
"2" pr compound eyes, really just one eye split underwater and over water
Bumper cars

5

Staphylinidae

Rove beetles
Short elytra
Long sharp mandibles cross in front of head
Defensive odors

6

Scarabaedae

Scarab beetles
Scavengers or phytofagous
Dung beetles, Hercules, June, Japanese beetles

7

Buprestidae

Flat headed borers
Attack live or newly cut trees
Larvae make oval tunnels/galleries

8

Elateridae

Click beetles
Pronotal shield horns
Eyespots common
Defense: click noise and flip backwards
Bioluminescence

9

Lampyridae

Fireflies
Females wingless
Lucifern: light enzyme
Femme fatale use light to trick other male species

10

Dermestadie

Skin beetles
Feed on flowers
Larvae feed on dead plants and animals
Larvae used to clean bones

11

Coccinelidae

Lady bird beetles
Predators on aphids
Some pests
Hibernate in summer

12

Tenebrionidae

Darling beetle
Elytra fused, no wings
Predators, detrivores
Head stand and reflexive bleed

13

Meloidae

Blister beetles
Flexible elytra
Pronotum more narrow than head
Hyper metamorphosis
Eat pollen
1st instar: triungulin, jumps on bee then eats it's eggs
Adults produce canthardin, toxin that makes blisters

14

Cerambycidae

Round headed borers
Long antennae
Larvae eat wood
Round galleries

15

Chrysomelidae

Leaf beetles
Skeletonizes leaves
Colorado potatoes, corn root worm, flea beetles

16

Curculionidae

Weevils or about beetles
Club like antennae with snout
Eat plants
Adults play dead
Boll weevil: cotton

17

Scoltyidae

Bark beetles
Eat inner bark of trees
Aggregation pheromones: call others to tree it found
Transmit blue stain fungi

18

Order Mecoptera

Scorpion flies
Mouthparts beak like appearance, chewing mouthparts on end
Bulbous genetalia in males
Adults eat small spiders
Pupate in cells in soil
Nuptial gifts

19

Order Siphonaptera

Fleas
Use comb to pick into hair of mammal
Larvae feed on debris, host skin flakes or adult feces, blood
Lay eggs on host and they fall off
Bubonic (bite), pneumonic (bacteria in lungs) and septicemic (bacteria in blood) plague

20

Order Diptera

Flies
1pr wings
1pr hatlteres

21

Family tipulidae

Crane flies
Delicate
Feed on nectar
Larvae aquatic

22

Culicidae

Mosquitos
Female has piercing mouthparts
Johnston's organ is used
All larvae aquatic wrigglers, pupae tumblers
Breathe through snorkel
Anopheles: malaria
Aedes: yellow fever
Culex: filariasis

23

Chiranomidae

Midges
Adults don't feed
Use hemoglobin to suck up oxygen

24

Simuliidae

Black flies
Adults have humpback
Live in clean flowing water
Pupate in silk cocoon
Females bite
River blindness

25

Tabanidae

Horse flies: stationary host
Deer flies: moving host
Iridescent eyes
Females blood sucking
Some species vector diseases nematode across eye

26

Asiidae

Robber flies
Head hollowed out between eyes
Capture prey on their wings

27

Drosaphidae

Pomace, small fruit flies
Eat decaying vegetation
Important in breakdown of vegetation

28

Argromyzidae

Leaf miner flies
Plant feeders
Form leaf mines
Recognizable by type of mine

29

Muscidae

Teste fly: live birth, blood feeders, transmit fatal protozoan disease
House fly: lay eggs in garbage, liquid feeders, can transmit food disease
Stable fly: bite people and animals, larvae found in straw

30

Calliphoridae

Blow flies
Maggots used to remove gangrenous tissue
Lay eggs in wounds
Myiasis: disease from fly feeding on tissue
Can determine time of death

31

Sarcophagidae

Flesh flies
Like blow flies but black
Larvae eat animal material
Some are parasites

32

Tachinidae

Tachinids
Parasite on other insects
Bristles on abdomen
Parasite on Lepidoptera, lay eggs in insect body that burrow in

33

Tephritidae

Fruit flies
Bands on wings
Lay eggs in fruit then mark it so other females will go somewhere else

34

Order Trichoptera

Caddis flies (case flies)
Ancestors to moths
Liquid feeders
Oviposit into water
Larvae abdominal gills
Critical for environment, only found in clean water
Net spinners, case builders, free living are predators

35

Parasites vs. Parasitoids

Parasitoids kill, parasites do not

36

Order Lepidoptera

Butterflies and Moths
Silk glands in mouth
Also skippers: mix of butterfly and moth
Antennae make them different: B: clubbed, M: not clubbed, S: hooked
Larvae have prolegs: fake hook legs and crochets: hook them up to cocoons
Predator defense: concealment, crypsis, chemicals, hair, mimicry, disposable parts, and mutualists
Fly to Mexico for winter
Mate: butterflies: day fliers, m and f find mates, moths: night fliers

37

Family Papillionade

Swallow tails
Eye spots
Osmeterium: scent gland on head for defense

38

Family danaidae

Milkweed (monarch and queen butterflies)
Short range pheromones

39

Family Noctuidae

Armyworms, bollworms etc.
moths
Long range pheromones
Pests

40

Family Sphingidae

Hawk and Sphinx moths
Larvae have conspicuous spine (puppy tail)
Pupa have pitcher shaped handle mouth

41

Family saturniidae

Giant silkworm moths
Stinging hairs
Important for Native American food

42

Order Hymenoptera

Bees, wasps, ants, sawflies
Females ovipositor sting
Eggs that are fertilized become females, unfertilized are males
Make eggs laid first so sisters can mate when they are born

42

Suborder Apocripta

Stinging bees/wasps, parasitic wasps, ants
Chewing mouthparts or modified sucking
Wings held together by hamuli: hooks

43

Suborder Symphata

Saw flies
Ovipositor needle or saw like
Insert eggs into wood
Eat plants
Larvae like carts pillars but no crochets

44

Parasitoid wasps

Very small
Touch host with ovipositor only
Attack any stage
Chalcid wasps: pest control, figs
Cynipid wasps: make galls on plants

45

Sawflies

Feed on foliage

46

Family Ichneumonidae

No sting
Ovipositor to saw into wood for food
Eat larvae of holometabs like borers

46

Family sphecidae

Mud daubers, sand wasps
Hunt specific prey

47

Solitary stinging wasp

Paper and wood nests
Capture food and bring back to nest

47

Family pompilidae

Spider, tarantula hawks
Nervous searching/ hunting behavior
Dance around spiders

48

Family megachilidae

Leaf cutter bees
Tube nests lined with leaves
Last egg laid hatched first

49

Solitary stinging bees

Plumper hairs
Pollen baskets
Some nest parasites: take over other bugs nests, kill larvae and lay their own in the nest

50

Social Hymenoptera

Pre-social: gregariousness, brood care, communal nesting, nest provisioning
Eusocial: cooperative brood care, caste systems, overlapping generations

51

Primitive Eusocial Wasps

Queen threatens other females and denies them food to be dominate
When queen dies next meanest female takes over

52

Advanced social wasps

Huge paper nests, 1000s of wasps
1 reproductive queen
True divisions of labor

53

Primitive Eusocial Bees

Nest in abandoned cavities
Queens rule through aggression

53

Family Mutilidae

Velvet ant wasps: bright orange, powerful sting

54

Advanced Social Bees

Honey bees
Multiple cells in honeycomb
Variety of jobs

55

Ants (Hymenoptera)
Family Formicidae

Evolved from wasps
Polymorphism and polyethism
Caste
Winged repros, sterile workers

55

Family Anthrophoridae

Carpenter bees

56

Army ants

Stationary phase: reproductive
Mobile phase: while colony moves to find food

58

Leaf cutter ants

Chop up leaves to take back to colony
Let leaves grow fungus to eat

60

Slave raider ants

Have fights between black and red
Winner steals others babies and raises them as their own
Dulosis

62

Protector ants

Farm aphids and scales

64

Carpenter ants

Infest rotting wood

66

Honey pot ants

Make huge ball of nectar on abdomen to feed to others