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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (75):
1

Segments of tagma

Abdomen, thorax, head

2

Sclerotinization

Hardening of the cuticle to make it protective

3

Labrum

Upper lip

4

Mandibles

Jaws

5

Maxillae

Second jaws

6

Labium

Lower lip

7

Palms

Fingers on maxillae and labium

8

Hypo pharynx

Tongue covered in exoskeleton

9

Stylets

Labium like rain gutter

10

Compound eyes

Corneal lens
Ommatidia (camera lenses)
Optic nerve

11

Ocelli

Other little eyes for light and seasons

12

Stemmata

Shadow and light

13

Thorax segments

Pro, meso and meta

14

Legs

Coxa
Trochanter
Femur
Tibia
Tarsus
Pretarsus

15

Cursorial

Running

16

Natatorial

Swimming

17

Saltorial

Jumping

18

Raptorial

Capturing prey

19

Fossorial

Digging

20

Main wings

Membranous

21

Halteres

Gyroscopic wing

22

Elytra

Hard wing. Beetles

23

Hemelytra

Half hard wing

24

Tegmina

Leathery wing

25

Wing pads

Developing wings

26

Wing scales

Scales on wings. Butterflies

27

Alimentary canal

Hind gut
Mid gut
Fore gut

28

Hind gut

Water balance and excretion

29

Mid gut

Digestion and absorption

30

Fore gut

Processing and ingestion

31

Gastric cacea

Site of food absorption

32

Crop

Secondary food storage

33

Proventriculus

Grinding jaws that move food into stomach

34

Malphigian tubules

Regulation of salts and water

35

Main excretory products are

Nitrogenous wastes

36

Insect waste product

Uric acid: frass
Solid requires no water

37

Parthenogenetic reproduction

Females only

38

Male reproductive structures

Testis
Seminal duct
Accessory glands: produce spermatophor (sperm sack)
Aedeagus: penis

39

Female reproductive structures

Ovaries
Spermatheca: store sperm for future
Accessory glands: produce glue for eggs to stick to leaves etc.
Oviducts
Vagina

40

Ootheca

Egg pods

41

The egg

Chorion: shell
Yolk: all other stuff
Nucleus
Micropyle: hole so sperm can get in

42

Ovoparious

Normal egg surrounded by chorion

43

Viviparous

Live birth

44

Ovoviviparous

Egg is fine but mother still keeps it and kid is born live

45

Respiratory system

Spiracles
Trachea
Air sacs

46

Breathing

Active and passive ventilation

47

Circulation

Open circulatory system

48

Hemolymph

All the stuff

49

Blood flows from

Dorsal vessel
Aorta
Heart
Ostia (openings in heart)

50

Fat bodies

Generation of light
Luminescence

51

Neuron

Cell body
Axon : output
Dendrites : input
Terminal aborizations : fingers at end of axon

52

Nervous transmission

Synapse
Synaptic transmission
Acetylcholine: causes electrical impulses
ACH-ase: destroys ACH after transmission

53

Dual central nerve cord

Ladder like spine made of ganglia(group of neurons)

54

Insect Brain

Protocerebrum- eyes and ocelli
Deuto- antennae
Trito- mouthparts and some sensory
Visceral NS- heart, gut etc.

55

Flicker fusion frequency

How many times eyes scan something each second
Humans 50/1
Insects 250/1

56

Chemoreception

Taste: high concentration in fluids
Smell: low concentration in air

57

Mechanoreception

Sound, touch, movement

58

Johnston's organ

Perceive sound

59

Tymphanal (chordotonal) organs

Ears

60

Kind people can only find good sex

Kingdom phylum class order family genus species

61

Systemma natura

How to decide how to group organisms

62

Protoannelid

First worm

63

Phylum Onychophora

Bilaterally segmented
Walking worms

64

Phylum Annelida

Bilaterally seg.
Closed circ system (insects don't have)

65

Phylum Anthropoda

Open circ system
Exoskeleton
Tagma

66

Sub phyla of Arthropoda

Trilobita: extinct, flat with many legs
Chilicerata: (spiders), simple eyes, book lungs, 2 tagma; cephalothorax
Crustacea: (lobsters) aquatic, gills, biramous appendages; split into claw
Unaramia: (insects) 2-3 tagma, uniramous appendages; end at one point

67

Major classes of Uniramia

Diplopoda: (millipedes) elongated cylindrical body, reflexive bleeding
Chilopoda: (centipedes) elongated flattened body, 1st pair of appendages; jaw injects venom
Hexapoda: (insects) 3 tagma, 2pr wings, mostly terrestrial

68

Why are insects so successful?

Exoskeleton
Small size
Evolution of sociality
Rapid reproduction
Many species-isolating mechanisms

69

Major steps of the evolution of insects

Development of body plan
Wings/flight
Wing flexion (folding wings)
Holometabolism (metamorphasis to eat different things)

70

4 major mechanisms of evolution

Mutation
Natural selection (directional selection: selects against a phenotype)
Genetic drift (chance events: bottleneck effect)
Genetic flow ( killer bees)

71

Antennae

Scape
Pedestal
Flagellum

72

Exoskeleton

Epicuticle
Procuticle
Cellular epidermis
Basement membrane

73

Types of molting

Hememetabolism- only grow wings
Holometabolism- complete change
Ametabolism- no change

74

Chemical that starts molting

Ecdysone

75

Pause in molting

Diapause