Final Flashcards Preview

Religions 2400 Judaism > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (91)
Loading flashcards...
1

Ahasurus

Persian king and husband of Esther

2

Aliya

immigration of the jews from dispora to the land of Israel

3

Amida

Core prayer to Jewish Worship

4

Antiochus IV

a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BCE until his death in 164 BCE

5

Aron Kodesh

Ark in the Synagogue used to store the Torah scrolls

6

Beit Knesset

House of assemble, synagogue

7

Beit Midrash

House of Study, synagogue

8

Beit Tefilah

House of Prayer, synagogue

9

Berakhot

Jewish Benediction found in the Mishnah

10

Bimah

platform or podium in the synagogue from which the Torah and the Prophets is read

11

Brit Milah

Circumcision ceremony of male jewish infants

12

Cantor

person who leads the synagogue congregation in the chants

13

Challah

Jewish Sabbath‑and‑holiday bread

14

Chametz/Khametz

leavened foods that are forbidden on the Jewish holiday of Passover

15

Charoset

sweet relish eaten at the Seder meal of passover that represents the mortar that the slaves used to build the cities.

16

Chazzan

a Jewish musician, or precentor, trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer

17

Cholent

a traditional Jewish stew. It is usually simmered overnight for 12 hours or more, and eaten for lunch on Shabbat

18

Counting of the Omer

an important verbal counting of each of the forty-nine days between the Jewish holidays of Passover and Shavuot as stated in the Hebrew Bible

19

Daven

Eastern Yiddish word meaning to recite the prescribed prayers in a Jewish liturgy

20

Day of Atonement

Holiest day of the Jewish Calendar, known also as Yom Kippur. Allows you to atone or offending God

21

Omer

unit of measure of grain

22

Days of Awe

The 10 high holy days that begins with Rosh Hashanah and ends with Yom Kippur

23

Dreidel

a Jewish variant on the teetotum, a gambling toy found in many European cultures. Each side of the dreidel bears a letter of the Hebrew alphabet

24

Esther

is the eponymous heroine of the Book of Esther. According to the Hebrew Bible, Esther was a Jewish queen of the Persian king

25

Etrog

is the yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot

26

Gelt

to money as well as chocolate coins given to Jewish children on the festival of Hanukkah

27

Haftarah

a series of selections from the books of Nevi'im ("Prophets") of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) that is publicly read in synagogue as part of Jewish religious practice

28

Haggadah

Jewish text that sets forth the order of the Passover Seder as well as the retelling of exodus

29

Haman

main antagonist in the Book of Esther, who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was a vizier in the Persian empire under King Ahasuerus

30

Hamantaschen

filled-pocket cookie or pastry recognizable for its triangular shape

31

Hanukkah/Chanukah

a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt

32

Hanukkiah

a special type of menorah made just for Hanukkah

33

Havdalah

a Jewish religious ceremony or formal prayer marking the end of the Sabbath

34

HIgh Holy Days

more properly known as the Yamim Noraim (Days of Awe), may mean: strictly, the holidays of Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement)

35

Huppah

a canopy under which a Jewish couple stand during their wedding ceremony

36

Kaballat Shabbat

a mystical ritual designed to welcome Shabbat

37

Kaddish

a hymn of praises to God found in the Jewish prayer service. The central theme of the Kaddish is the magnification and sanctification of God's name

38

Kashrut

a set of Jewish religious dietary laws

39

Ketubah

a special type of Jewish prenuptial agreement. It is considered an integral part of a traditional Jewish marriage, and outlines the rights and responsibilities of the groom, in relation to the bride

40

Kippah

a brimless cap, usually made of cloth, worn by Jews to fulfill the customary requirement held by orthodox halachic authorities

41

Kol Nidre

an Aramaic prayer annulling vows made before God, sung by Jews at the opening of the Day of Atonement service on the eve of Yom Kippur

42

Kosher

foods that conform to the codes of Kashrut

43

L'kah Dodi

a Hebrew-language Jewish liturgical song recited Friday at dusk, usually at sundown, in synagogue to welcome Shabbat prior to the Maariv (evening services). It is part of the Kabbalat Shabbat ("welcoming of Sabbath")

44

Lamentations

Book traditionally read on Tisha B'Av

45

Latkes

potato pancakes

46

Lulav

closed frond of the date palm tree. It is one of the Four Species used during the Jewish holiday of Sukkot

47

Maccabees

were the leaders of a Jewish rebel army that took control of Judea, which at the time had been a province of the Seleucid Empire

48

Matzah

unleaven bread prepared for passover

49

Menorah

he seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary

50

Mezuzzah

A small parchment scroll upon which the Hebrew words of the Shema are handwritten by a scribe

51

Mikveh

a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism

52

Minhah

prayers are offered in the afternoon

53

Mohel

a Jew trained in the practice of brit milah, the "covenant of circumcision."

54

Mordechai

one of the main personalities in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. He was the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin

55

Ner Tamid

lamp that burns perpetually in Jewish synagogues before or near the ark of the Law

56

Niddah

a Hebrew term describing a woman during menstruation, or a woman who has menstruated, and not yet completed the associated requirement of immersion in a mikveh (ritual bath)

57

Pareve/Parve

prepared without meat, milk, or their derivatives and therefore permissible to be eaten with both meat and dairy dishes according to dietary laws

58

Passover

holiday that commemorates the freedom of the Jews from enslavement in Egypt

59

Pesach

Hebrew name for passover

60

Pilgrimage festivals

Pesach (Passover), Shavuot (Weeks or Pentecost), and Sukkot (Tabernacles, Tents or Booths)

61

Purim

a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews

62

Rabbi

a teacher of Torah

63

Rosh Hashanah

Jewish new year

64

Ruth

Ruth was a Moabites, who married into the Hebrew family of Elimelech and Naomi, whom she met when they left Bethlehem and relocated to Moab due to a famine

65

Seder

a Jewish ritual feast that marks the beginning of the Jewish holiday of Passover

66

Shabbat

Jewish Sabbath

67

Shakharit

daily morning Tefillah (prayer) of the Jewish people, one of the three times there is prayer each day

68

Shavu'ot

a major Jewish festival held on the 6th (and usually the 7th) of Sivan, fifty days after the second day of Passover. It was originally a harvest festival, but now also commemorates the giving of the Law (the Torah)

69

Shekinah

glory of the divine presence, conventionally represented as light or interpreted symbolically

70

Shema

the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title (sometimes shortened to simply Shema) of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services

71

Shivah

a period of seven days' formal mourning for the dead, beginning immediately after the funeral

72

Shloshim

thirty-day period following burial (including shiva)

73

Shofar

an ancient musical horn made of ram's horn

74

Shul

a synagogue

75

Siddur

a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers

76

Simhat Bat

a Jewish naming ceremony for newborn girls

77

Simhat Torah

a Jewish holiday that celebrates and marks the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings, and the beginning of a new cycle

78

Sukkah

a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish festival of Sukkot

79

Sukkot

a major Jewish festival held in the autumn (beginning on the 15th day of Tishri) to commemorate the sheltering of the Israelites in the wilderness

80

Tallit Gadol

a large four corneered undershirt with tzitzit/fringes worn by Jewish men during their morning prayers

81

Tallit Katan

a small four cornered undershirt with tzitzit/fringes worn by small jewish boys

82

Tefillin

a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah

83

Tisha b'Av

an annual fast day in Judaism which commemorates the anniversary of a number of disasters in Jewish history, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem

84

Treif

is the Yiddish word for any form of non-kosher food

85

Tzedekah

charitable giving, typically seen as a moral obligation

86

Tzit Tzit

knotted ritual fringes found on the Tallit

87

Yahrzeit

anniversary of a close relatives death and also a type of candle that is lit in memory of the deceased

88

Yarmulkah

A small round cap typically worn in prayer by jewish men

89

Yom Kippur

is "the tenth day of [the] seventh month" (Tishrei) and is regarded as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths"

90

Four Species

Branch of Palm, Willow, Myrtle branch and a Etrog

91

What are the 3 daily prayers in Judaism?

Shacharit (morning), Minha (afternoon), Maariv (evening)