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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (101)
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1

Which two countries have the largest Jewish Populations?

USA and Isreal

2

What is the approximate Jewish population of Canada?

374,000, 1.14% of total canadian population and 2.8% of world jewish population

3

What are the "Abrahamic Religions"?

An Abrahamic religion is a religion whose people believe that the Hebrew patriarch Abraham and his descendants hold an important role in human spiritual development. The best known Abrahamic religions are Judaism, Christianity and Islam

4

What does "Dispora" mean and how is it an important idea for Jews?

Dispora comes from an old Greek term meaning disperssion and refers to the jewish communities no located in Isreal. Emissaries are sent to Dispora communities in order to teach a love for Israel as living there is considered to be in a state of assented privelage

5

What is the approximate time of David & Solomon?

1000 BCE

6

When did the fall of Samaria take place?

722 BCE

7

When did the Fall of Judah and the 1st temple take place?

587 BCE

8

When was the Second Temple Rebuilt?

late 500 - early 400s BCE

9

When did the Maccabean Rebellion take place?

160s BCE

10

When did the rededication of the Temple take place?

164 BCE

11

When did the destruction of the 2nd Temple take place?

70 CE

12

When did the Bar Kochba Rebellion finally end?

135 BCE

13

When was the Mishnah completed?

200-220 CE

14

When was the Palestinian Talmud completed?

400 CE

15

When was the Babylonian Talmud completed?

500s CE

16

Who and where was the Jewish Bible Canonized?

A school of Talmudic Sages in Yavneh

17

What are the apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha?

Books that were omitted from the Jewish Canon. These books include the Maccabees, Judith, and tobit and were only preserved in the Cristian churches such as the Greek orthodox church and the Roman Catholic church

18

What is the Shema?

A Jewish prayer

19

What is the Sefer Torah?

Scroll of the Law

20

Masoretic Text

Standard version of the Hebrew Bible developed by the Masoretes of Tiberias in the ninth and tenth centures CE

21

Septuagint

The translation of the Bible into Greek around the third century BCE

22

Pentateuch

Greek term used by christian scholars in there reference to the Hebrew Bible. Greek for "five scrolls"

23

Codex

book constructed by a number of sheets of paper

24

Canon

Collection of Authoritative Scripture for a particular religion

25

Haftarah

Series of selections from the books of Nevi'im ("Prophets") of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) that is publicly read in synagogue as part of Jewish religious practice. The Haftarah reading follows the Torah reading on each Sabbath and on Jewish festivals and fast days.

26

Khetuvim

the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets). In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled "Writings".
The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under divine inspiration, but with one level less authority than that of prophecy

27

Nevi'im

2nd Section of the Tanakh consisting of the Former Prophets and the Latter Prophets

28

Writings

English title for the Khetuvim of the Tanakh

29

Khumash

Printed codex Volume containing the Torah in its entirety and the haftarah readings. Also known as Humash or Chumash

30

Midrash

ancient commentary on part of the Hebrew scriptures that "fills in the blanks" and connects everything together

31

Gemarah

2nd part of the Talmud consisting of Rabbinic commentaries on Mishnah

32

Mishnah

1st part of the Talmud consisting of an analysis of Biblical Law

33

Amoraim

Jewish Scholars from 200 to 500 CE who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah. They were concentrated in Babylonia and the Land of Israel

34

Israeli

citizens or permanent residents of the state of Israel

35

Israelite

Member of the ancient Hebrew Nation, especially in the period from the Exodus to the Babylonian Captivity

36

Hasmoneans

Ruling dynasty of Judea between 140 and 37 BCE

37

Essenes

a sect of Second Temple Judaism that flourished from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE. Congregated in Communal life dedicated to asceticism. Monastic group who contributed some of the Dead Sea Scrolls

38

Canaanites

A group of People that the Israelites annihilated following the exodus

39

Levites

Member of the tribe of Levi that served particular religious duties for the Israelites and had political responsibilities

40

Phillistines

Non-semetic people of ancient southern Palestine, who came into conflict with the Isrealites during the 12th and 11th centuries BCE

41

Tannaim

Rabbinic sages who's views are recorded in the Mishnah, from 10 to 220 CE

42

Zealot

A member of an ancient Jewish sext aiming at a world Jewish Theocracy and resisting the Romans until 70 CE

43

Sadducees

Temple elite Jewish sect at the time of Christ that denied the resurrection of the dead, the existence of spirits, and the obligation of oral tradition, emphasizing acceptance of the written law alone

44

Samaritans

Jewish sect that emphasized the importance of turning to Mount Gerizim instead of Jerusalem

45

Masoretes

Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE. Responsible for the Masoretic text and adding vowels

46

Pharisees

Believed in eternal Soul and Judgement after death, had oral interpretations of the Torah that was rejected by the Sadducces

47

Maccabees

leaders of Jewish Rebel army that took over Judea from the Seleucid empire

48

Northern Kingdom

Kingdom of Isreal consisting of the 12 tribes minus Benjamin and Judah

49

Southern Kingdom

Kingdom of Judah consisting of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin

50

United Monarchy

kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible. This is traditionally dated between 1050 and 930 BCE. Eventually divided into the Northern and Southern Kingdoms after the death of Solomon

51

Canaan

a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BCE. In the Bible it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Hebrew Bible

52

Dome of the Rock

Islamic Mosque now located on the location of the 1st and 2nd Temple

53

Mt. Gerizim

The sacred mountain of the Samaritans that is considered more important than Jerusalem

54

Sinai

The mountain where Moses received the law

55

Wailing Wall

Only remaining ruins of the 1st and 2nd temple that is a sacred spot of Jewish prayer

56

Yavneh (Jamnia)

Location of the ancient Jewish council where the Jewish canon is thought to have been finalized

57

Samaria

The ruling city of the Northern Kingdom that was conquered by the Assyrians in 722 BCE

58

Qumran

Location of the caves that housed the dead sea scrolls

59

Kotel

Another name for the Location of the Wailing wall

60

Moriah

Name of the Mountain range from the book of Genesis

61

Akedah (Akeidah)

The story of the binding of Isaac

62

Targum

spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a Rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic

63

Halakhah

Jewish Law

64

Hanukkah

Jewish Holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple

65

Mitzvah (mitzvot)

Commandment from God

66

Tosefta

is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the late 2nd century, the period of the Mishnah. In many ways, the Tosefta acts as a supplement to the Mishnah

67

Shofar

A shofar is an ancient musical horn made of ram's horn, used for Jewish religious purposes

68

Tractate

is an organizational element of Talmudic literature

69

Assyrian Empire

The reign of the Assyrians over the Northern Kingdom (Kingdom of Israel) after the dispersion of the 10 tribes (the lost ten tribes of Israel)

70

Hellenistic Empire

the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year

71

Roman Empire

Empire that conquered Jerusalem in 63 BCE under the Reign of Pompey and controlled Jerusalem and the kingdom of Judah until its fall

72

Ptolomiac Dynasty

a Macedonian royal family, originating from Macedon, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt

73

Sassanid Empire

the last imperial dynasty in Persia before the rise of Islam, ruled by and named after the Sassanian dynasty from 224 to 651 AD

74

Seleucid Empire

a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC

75

El Elyon

Meaning "God Most high"

76

Jehovah

vocalization of YHWH

77

Yahweh

Close to the Hebrew work for "To be" (He is)

78

Elohim

grammatically plural noun for "Gods" or "deity" from the Hebrew Bible

79

Shaddai

Word to for God meaning "Almighty"

80

YHWH

The proper unpronounceable name of the Jewish God

81

HaShem

"The name" used for God in Jewish Texts

82

Shekinah

the English transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning "dwelling" or "settling" and denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine presence of God. This term does not occur in the Bible, and is from rabbinic literature

83

Esau

Oldest so of Isaac son of Abraham whos birthright was stolen by his younger brother Jacob

84

Hagar

Egyptian handmaid of Sarai (Sarah), who gave her to Abraham to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham's firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites

85

Herod

a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom

86

Hillel

a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. He is associated with the development of the Mishnah and the Talmud. Renowned within Judaism as a sage and scholar, he was the founder of the House of Hillel school for Tannaïm (Sages of the Mishnah) and the founder of a dynasty of Sages who stood at the head of the Jews living in the Land of Israel until roughly the fifth century of the Common Era

87

Ishmael

Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham's and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar

88

Judah

fourth son of Jacob and Leah, the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Judah. By extension, he is indirectly eponymous of the Kingdom of Judah, the land of Judea and the word "Jew"

89

Judah HaNasi (Judah the prince)

a second-century rabbi and chief redactor and editor of the Mishnah. He was a key leader of the Jewish community during the Roman occupation of Judea

90

Leah

first of the two concurrent wives of the Hebrew patriarch Jacob and mother of six sons whose descendants became some of the Twelve Tribes of Israel

91

Levi

son of Jacob, or high priest of the Israelites. Moses and his brother, Aaron, were both descendants of the Tribe of Levi

92

RABBAN

a title traditionally given to the head of the Sanhedrin during Tannaitic times

93

Rachel

was the favourite of Biblical patriarch Jacob's two wives as well as the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, two of the twelve progenitors of the tribes of Israel

94

Sarah (Sarai)

wife and also the half–sister of Abraham and the mother of Isaac as described in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran. Her name was originally Sarai. According to Genesis 17:15, God changed her name to Sarah as part of a covenant after Hagar bore Abraham his first son, Ishmael.

95

Shammai

a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. Shammai was the most eminent contemporary and the halakhic opponent of Hillel, and is almost invariably mentioned along with him

96

Simon Bar Kokhba

was the Jewish leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state which he ruled for three years as Nasi ("Prince"). His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following a two and half-year war

97

Solomon

a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel and a son of David, the previous king of Israel, He reigned from 970 to 931 BCE

98

Yokhanan ben Zakkai (Johanan ben Zakai)

Leader of the Scholarly school in Yavneh

99

The Exile

Babylonian Exile, also called Babylonian Captivity, the forced detention of Jews in Babylonia following the latter's conquest of the kingdom of Judah in 598 and 587 BCE. The exile formally ended in 538 BCE, when the Persian conqueror of Babylonia, Cyrus the Great, gave the Jews permission to return to Palestine

100

The Restoration

Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE. The development of the Hebrew Bible canon, the synagogue, Jewish apocalyptic expectations for the future, and Christianity, can all be traced to the Second Temple period

101

Adonai

Word for God used in Jewish Texts