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1

Ethics equals ________ – customs, conduct or character can be used interchangeably

morality

2

_______ is discovering what is right or wrong/good or bad

Respect, love, and Freedom are some moral concepts

inspire rules of action

Morality

3

______ arose from advances in medicine and technology

Life/death issues

Advance directives

Organ donation

Genetics

Futile Care-

Bioethics

4

- interventions unlikely to produce benefits for the client

Futile Care

5

: Does the advancement improve or maintain according to pt and family

Quality of life

6

Access to care, gov. funding for prevention & Health Promotion; curative care, end-of-life care.

Allocation of resources:

7

Ensures good action… actions that we ought to take according to society at large

Normative theory..

8

do not tell us what actions to take, they tell us how people act toward each other and their environment, what they seem to believe are good or moral actions

Descriptive theories

9

represents a view point on moral problems in healthcare and other areas of life that have been neglected historically

Feminist ethics

10

Greatest good for greatest number (Immunizations, seat belt laws)

Consequentialism:

11

adherence to duty rather than on good consequences. Act so that you treat humanity – both in your own person and in that of another.

Duty Based:

12

Decision making in health care settings has inseparable moral components

Identify the main problem or issue… social, group or individual..is it a justice issue or autonomy issue

Determine who or what created the problem.. Who has stake in the issue

Determine the prevalent values.. What are the teams individual values, do they conflict?... The values of the individual who is most likely to be a affected by a decision is weighted more heavily

Identify information gaps… interview, medical records current research

Formulate a possible course of action and probable consequences… least harmful and most benefical

Initiate the course of action

Self reflection/group reflection

Ethics Committee

13

the right to determine what treatments or interventions they will accept: freedom of choice/self governing EXCEPTION situation in which there is a high risk of injury or death and it cannot be determined if patients judgment is impaired

Self Determination-

14

ensuring patient has all appropriate information necessary to come to a decision about treatment/procedures.. Risk/benefit

Informed Consent:

15

Proxy Decision Making/medical power of attorney

Advanced Directive:

16

– patient has a right to decide who will have access to their medical information

HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability Act) Will discuss later

Confidentiality

17

: maintain adolescents autonomy and confidentiality needs while mediating between the adolescent and parent who feel they have a right to know

Mandatory reporting laws

Adolescent Confidentiality

18

: patients are given true and accurate information about their healthcare #1 trusted profession

Veracity

19

: doing good or producing good, to benefit others/action to promote the welfare of others (mercey, kindness, charity)

Beneficence

20

9 Provisions in all.
Code of ethics guides nurses’ practice.

Treat all with dignity

Nurses’ have primary obligation to patient (family, community)

Promote and Advocate for health, safety, and patients’ rights

Accountable for individual practice – including delegating tasks appropriately

Nurses owe themselves the same moral duties as we owe to others; accountable for continuing education and maintaining competency; to preserve integrity and safety means to disclose errors, or repeated issues with inadequate staffing; never falsify records nor tolerate verbal abuse from any health care workers.

Maintain/improve moral environment and work with others to create environment of safety and quality pt. care.

Shared government, committed to leadership and mentoring

Nurses collaborate with other professionals – locally, nationally, and globally

We are responsible for maintaining integriy for profession and shaping social policies; be involved in social reform and shaping social policies for vulnerable populations

21

: threatens to give an injection or restrain; fear that will be touched without permission

Assault

22

chemical, physical (side rails, restraints)

False Imprisonment:

23

Touches patient without consent, forces meals, meds

Battery:

24

Wrong that involves breach of civil duty

Torts:

25

: willful act that violates another’s rights

Assault, battery, false imprisonment

Intentional torts

26

Invasion of privacy

Defamation of character

Quasi-intentional torts

27

The doing of something which a reasonably prudent person would not do, or the failure to do something which a reasonably prudent person would do, under circumstances similar to those shown by the evidence.

Negligence:

28

– not knowing how to use equipment, monitors, pumps, failure to document progress, response to treatment or situation – Resulting in Injury.

** Falls, Medication Errors

Malpractice usually unintentional

29

Promote breast-feeding for at least 4 months.

Used worldwide.

Must have: written breast feeding policy, train staff on skills needed, inform all women about benefits and management of breastfeeding, Help mothers initiate breast feeding shortly after birth; give no food/drink to newborns unless medically indicated, No pacifiers, allow mothers to feed on demand; give mothers resources for after discharge.

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative

30

: Normally healthy people can develop by Close skin-to-skin contact, cuts or abrasions in skin,

crowed conditions, sharing personal items (towels, athletic gear); Usually infected area on skin resembles a red, swollen & painful area; requires culture.

MRSA- CA