Flashcards in Final Deck (48):

What is the cerebral cortex?

- Higher order thinking and reasoning become more developed and interconnected during middle childhood and adolescence


What is the prefrontal cortex?

- Top front area
- Undergoes considerable growth during adolescence, but is not fully mature until early 20's


What is the prefrontal cortex responsible for?

- Planning ahead and long term planning
- Making complex and uniquely human judgments
- evaluating risks v. benefits in various situations
- better impulse control - inhibits desire for immediate action in response to emotional stimuli


What is social cognition?

Thinking within a social context


What is adolescent egocentrism?

- State of self-absorption
- sees interpersonal interactions and social behaviors from his/her own point of view only


What is an imaginary audience?

- Usually negative
- Example: everyone is looking at me and noticing my acne, even if it is only a tiny pimple


What is a personal fable?

- Feeling that I am special and unique
- Example: what has happened to me has never happened to anyone else


What are some causes for risk-taking behaviors?

- Don't quite understand risks of given situation due to lack of info or experience
- Peer group (more likely to take risks in groups)
- Personal fable of invulnerability
- Individual differences in sensation seeking behaviors


What is creativity/divergent thinking?

- Related to risk taking
- Not as concerned with safety and security as adults
- Teens willing to try unconventional thinking and are able to generate unusual and possibly unique responses to problems, questions, issues


Decision making for teens

Executive functions of the prefrontal cortex are not yet fully mature, so teens do not fully weigh the future consequences of their actions, have a hard time planning goals and sticking to them, and have a hard time looking at different options


What is identity for teens?

- Self-concept
- expands during adolescence, becomes broader and multifaceted, covering more areas; a wider array of personality traits
- Positive aspirations and negative worries
- Involves social comparison - self-esteem depends on peer relationships, academic successes or failures, etc.


What is Erikson's identity v. role confusion stage?

- How successful an adolescent meets the demands of this stage depends on how well they resolved previous tasks (trust v. mistrust, autonomy v. doubt, initiative v. guilt, competency v. inferiority


What needs to happen in order to successfully resolve the identity v. role confusion stage?

- Discover his/her own unique capabilities and believe in them (self-esteem)
- Develop an accurate sense of who he/she is
- Combine various personality traits into an organized system, or identity


How can adolescent go off course during the identity v. role confusion stage?

- Adopt socially unacceptable roles
- Have difficulty forming a stable personal self-image and/or stable relationships
- When the above happens, the sense of self becomes diffuse, meaning it is not organized around an organized identity = role confusion


What is the nature of conflict?

- Adolescence see things as lifestyle choices (why does it matter if my room is messy)
- While adult/parent sees choices in terms of social conventions and what they think is an appropriate dress, behavior, etc.
- Adolescent is more apt to accept rule if it involves SAFETY or MORALITY, rather than feeling that parents are trying to exert control over them


What is the quest for autonomy?

- Development and expression of independence
- Teens become more dependent on opinion of teens to understand who they are. When they go to college they begin to set their own standards
- See parents LESS in idealized terms and more as persons in their own right
- Come to depend more on themselves
- Spend more time away from parents
- Power and influence between person and parent becomes more balanced
- gradual and necessary for the development


Autonomy and attachment during adolescence years?

- Necessary for good adjustment during adolescence
- Parents giving adolescent chance to find his/her own voice and parents accept that voice


Resilience during teen years

- Adaptability of adolescents to overcome all kinds of less-than-ideal circumstances that were/are present during earlier years, such as poor/inconsistent parenting, extreme poverty, violent homes and communities
- Resilient adolescents are independent. They believe they can shape their own fate, rely less on the idea of luck and more on their abilities and thinking processes. Dysfunctional family plays less of a central role in their psychological world, and other people and/or social institutions may serve as a substitute in providing encouragement and support


What are some characteristics of adolescent peer groups?

- Need to interact with friends constantly (facebook, phone, in person)
- Probably no other period of life where peer groups are as influential (both positive and negative)
- Can help satisfy personal interests and needs (fun, companionship, sex, sense of belonging)
- Provide information they feel they need for their own interest(s)
- Provide support
- Some peer groups provide prestige, status, and can raise self-esteem
- Provide social-comparison opportunities, which parents cannot provide
- Serve as reference groups for trying new identity, roles, and behaviors. Can be positive or negative


What is a clique?

- Group of 4-8 who have frequent interactions with one another
- Similar to one another (age, gender, race, family income, behavioral characteristics)
- Cafeteria good place to study cliques
- Eventually late adolescence cliques become less rigid and show turnover especially when people start to go to college


What is a crowd?

- Large, loose group compromised of many individuals who share common characteristics based on reputation and stereotype (e.g.: jocks, nerds, popular girls)
- Temporary identity


What is conformity?

Change in behavior or attitudes brought about by desire to follow the beliefs and standards of others


What is informational social influence?

Teens are swayed by the assumption that others have knowledge and experience they lack


What is normative social influence?

Peer pressure that reflects group norms and expectations about appropriate behavior for members of that group. Fueled by adolescents desire to meet the expectations of the group in order to avoid being made fun of


What is cohesiveness?

High in crowds when members are intensively attracted to that particular group of people and become strongly identified with it.


What is adolescent conformity pressure/peer pressure?

Normative regulation, in which there is an implicit understanding that youth in the same crowd should stick together, behave similarly, and conform to the implicit norms of the group


Other side of peer pressure

- Not all follow blindly, look to the expert
- Can turn to adults for advice
- Some teens move beyond this and some people never grow out of that vulnerability


What are formal groups/organizations?

Distinct benefits, but often not available to those teens who might benefit from membership (e.g.: community service activities, tutoring, teen sports)


What is the progressive movement?

- Between 1909-1920 juvenile court was established as separate from criminal court
- By 1925 every state had a separate juvenile justice system
- Based on the principle that goal was to shelter and be wise parent to guide child into a better life
- Advocates stressed similarity between young offenders and neglected children (and crossover kids)


What were some challenges to rehabilitative model and juvenile justice system based on that model?

- In re Gault: Gault denied due process b/c of the informality of the proceedings. Supreme court ordered procedural changes in juvenile court to make proceeding more like those in adult court. Has to do with legal protections and rights of adolescent defendants
- By late 1980's fear of superpredators: lead to wave of reform policies and played on the fear that the welfare of society was not being promoted because public safety was being jeopardized by violent teen gangs (also proposition 21 in california)
- As a result, many states lowered the age of transfer and crimes for which a child can be tried as an adult was expanded


According to Scott & Steinburg, what does it mean to safeguard and promote the public interest?

- Public safety, protecting the public, reducing youth crime, holding youth accountable, and producing non-criminal adults.


What is proportionality?

Fairness (for youth taking immaturity, mitigating factors, and developmental competence into account with public safety concerns)


Why does adult sentencing lead to higher recidivism rates in adolescents?

- Adult prisons & the role models that are there
- Mesosystem: usually lack academic instructions or apprenticeship programs


What does scientific literature on adolescence show?

- Adolescence immaturity in judgment and decision making makes them less culpable (mitigation)
- Most adolescents are likely to mature out of their criminal behaviors
- Because social context plays a key role in adolescent development, need appropriate correctional/rehabilitative settings for youthful offenders in order for them to make a successful transition into adulthood


What is the issue of social welfare vs. fairness in legal sense?

Is it fair that a teen with a viable family/support system gets remanded to less restrictive setting than youth in foster care?


What are the jurisdictional boundaries Scott & Steinberg suggest?

- Juvenile system should start at age 10-18
- Ages 10-15 categorically impossible to transfer to adult court
- Ages 15-17 still immature and deserve mitigation on the basis of immaturity, but cannot eliminate the fact that some crimes and/or a youth's criminal record may make it necessary to transfer him/her to the adult system out of safety and stability concerns in the juvenile system and facilities
- Extend juvenile court dispositional jurisdiction to age 24-25, so a 17 1/2-year-old who commits a serious crime in neither released in a few months or gets sent to a violent adult prison


What is Ryan's microsystem?

- Mother
- Father
- Brother, but eventually that failed


What was Ryan's mesosystem?

- Better mesosystem while in special education class with Mrs. Hughes (had support)
- Mother got Ryan arrested for coming at her with a knife
- When Ryan was released, he was determined to escape his horrendous past and permanently change his mesosystem and sought different opportunities to escape and not turn into the people in his mesosystem


Who were Ryan's role models?

- Valerie's brother/Ryan's uncle - incarcerated, later started using drugs and died of AIDS
- Valerie's mother - Tried to commit suicide, violent towards Ryan's father and him, violent, no self-control
- Barry (Valerie's boyfriend) - Toxic relationship with Valerie, violent towards one another, physically abusive
- Adrian (Ryan's older brother) - placed in group home, Valerie refused to take him in
- Mrs. Hughes - Special education teacher that was not afraid of Ryan's behaviors. Ryan became attached to Mrs. Hughes and eventually became his mentor
- Mr. Brown - Singing coach/mentor


What is the transitional stage of development for adolescents?

Immature prefrontal cortex, more impulsive, poor risk analysis, inability to weigh future consequences, emotional immaturity - peer pressure, defiant towards authority


What is the formative stage of development for adolescents?

What do teens need in order to move on to health adulthood?
- Structure, mentors, opportunity to voice their opinions


Long harsh sentences do not deter crime, instead, it encourages it. (T/F)



What is Uri Brofenbrenner's Ecological Systems Model?

Focuses on the context/environment in which a child grows up. The model views the individual as growing up within a system of concentric circles of influence.


What are the concentric circles of influence in the Ecological Systems Model?

1. Individual level
2. Microsystem
3. Mesosystems
4. Macrosystem & Exosystem


What is the individual level in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Biological (hormonal levels, flight v. fight response, being victim of abuse, PTSD)
- Cognitive (IQ, decision-making ability, problem-solving abilities)
- Emotional factors within the individual (temperament, self-control, effects of early attachments or lack of them)


What is the microsystem in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Includes family and other people that come into consistent contact with the individual every day.
- Includes: Demographic & parental characteristics, child-rearing practices, family functioning


What is the mesosystems in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Includes neighborhoods, communities, peer groups (peer influence), and schools (do they feel it's relevant? Tied to success? Connected to their school?)


What is the macrosystem & exosystem in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Refers to cultural and societal influences on a person. This includes national government, what decade one is growing up in, types of media.
- Include, poverty, media, accessibility of guns, societal/cultural drug & alcohol abuse