Flashcards in Midterm Deck (53):

What does a baby come into the world with?

1. His/her physical condition at birth
2. A social/emotional environment that is waiting for/anticipating the birth


What determines an infant's physical condition at birth?

1. Heredity
2. Teratogens
3. Physical trauma in utero (was mother physically abused?)


What are some consequences of prematurity?

1. Low birth weight
2. At-risk for delays in intellectual and language development
3. More likely to have neurologically based handicaps and problems with attention


What are teratogens?

Environmental agents that the fetus is exposed to in-utero that can cause deviations from normal development (e.g.: birth defects)


What are some teratogens?

1. Drugs taken by mother (prescription, cocaine, heroine, etc.)
2. Tobacco
3. Excessive Alcohol
4. Infections - (rubella, HIV/AIDS)
5. Radiation
6. Pollutants (Chemicals in water, soil, mercury in fish, air pollution from chemical plants)


What are some tests that screen and get information about the baby's physical condition at birth?

1. Does the baby have special needs that need to be addressed right now
2. Is the baby at high risk for future delays and what can be done to stop delays from happening?
3. Apgar Scale
4. Brazelton


How does the child's brain become organized into being able to take in sensory stimuli and make sense of it?

1. Physically - skull remains flexible at first so brain can expand
2. Neurotransmitters
3. Synapses keep firing away
4. Plasticity
5. Experience-expectant
6. Experience-dependent
7. Critical periods
8. Sensitive periods


What is plasticity?

Refers to the fact that the cerebral cortex of the brain is "uncommitted" at birth. Large areas are not "pre-wired" to respond to external stimuli in only one particular way, which means that humans have the CAPACITY to develop in many different cultures.


What is experience-expectant?

The brain expects to experience certain experiences, such as the brain expecting to be able to learn some language, although it is not hard-wired for any particular language


What is experience-dependent?

Refers to what develops in each different environment due to the influences of that particular environment


What is a critical period?

Important period for child's development. If it doesn't happen during that particular window, that window closes.


What is a sensitive period?

Window of opportunity where child can make up for delays (e.g.: attachments)


What kind of social/emotional environment must be present at birth?

1. Close relationship between infant and parents (cuteness reaction from parent(s), bonding overtime, role of parental expectations even before birth)
2. Culture & cultural norms
3. Opportunities that will be available


What is Erik Erikson's Psychosocial theory?

Building blocks theory that is important in forming and understanding personality. Erikson's theory emphasizes the importance of completing "main task" or "crisis" that must be resolved for each stage.


What is something that Erikson emphasized about his theory?

- Building blocks (success of prior stage will dictate success of future stages)
- Importance of going thorough stages, regardless of age
- Sensitive periods because he believed there's always time to make up for delays


What are Erikson's 8 stages in the Psychosocial Theory?

1. Trust v. Mistrust (birth-2yrs.)
2. Autonomy v. Shame/doubt (2-3 yrs.)
3. Initiative v. Guilt (4-5 yrs)
4. Industry (competence) v. Inferiority (6-11 yrs)
5. Identity v. Role confusion (adolescence)
6. Intimacy v. Isolation (early adulthood)
7. Generativity (being productive ) v. stagnation (middle age)
8. Integrity (feeling that their life was meaningful) v. despair (old age)


What is trust v. mistrust?

- Birth-2yrs.
- Foundation for other stages
- Feeling secure or insecure about being nurtured and safe


What is autonomy v. shame/doubt?

- 2-3 yrs.
- Belief that they're a separate person from their parent
- Learning to do things for him/herself
- Make choices
- Growing up in an overly punitive or shaming environment where the child is constantly made to feel bad or shamed when the child does not do something right
- Isn't socialized to learn to do things on their own


What is initiative v. guilt?

- 4-5 years
- Pleasure in accomplishments, goals, achieving success
- Initiative: child has a sense that they can accomplish and make choices. Lays the foundation for ability to make choices
- Guilt: Child feels that what they are doing is bad


What is industry v. inferiority?

- 6-11yrs
- Children learn to either feel competent and effective at various activities/skills, or they feel inferior based on comparison with peers
- A lot of this is based on peer acceptance/rejection in elementary school
- A lot of this is based on how the family relates to the child's academic and social successes
- A lot of this is based on how his/her teacher view and relate to the child (self-fulfilling prophesy


What is an attachment theory?

Based on child's sense of security, safety, and trust.


What was Freud's theory on attachment?

- Felt that emotion of "love has its origin in the attachment"
- An infant feels to the person who feeds/nourishes him. However, later research has indicated that attachment is not necessarily based on the satisfaction of the biological hunger


What was Harlow's theory on attachment?

- 1959-1969 studied baby rhesus monkeys and the preference for cloth mother as opposed to wire mother.
- Cloth mother provided security when baby monkey was frightened, even though no food was attached to cloth mother
- Concluded that bodily contact as a source of comfort is more important in forming infant's attachment to her mother.
- BUT monkey's raised with only cloth mothers, even well-nourished, had severe behavioral problems later on because those monkey's never learned how to behave like a monkey.


What are Bowlby's 4 phases of attachment?

1. The preattachment phase (birth-6 weeks)
2. Attachment-in-the-making phase (6 weeks-6 months)
3. Clear-cut attachment phase (6-18 months)
4. Reciprocal relationship phase (18-24 months)


What is Bowlby's preattachment phase (birth-6 weeks)?

- Infants do not distinguish who they're going to be attached to
- Not automatically attached to mom
- Crave attention, which is why in the U.S there is a space created in ICU's to touch and hold infants


What is Bowlby's Attachment-in-the-making phase (6 weeks-6 months)?

- Infants begin to show clear preferences for familiar v. unfamiliar people


What is Bowlby's Clear-cut attachment phase (6-18 months)?

- When mother or primary caregiver becomes a secure base from which baby can explore. This is when separation and stranger anxiety kick in


What is Bowlby's Reciprocal relationship phase (18-24 months)?

- Infant becomes more mobile. He/she can and does move away from mother. The pair then enter into a kind of reciprocal relationship in which they maintain the equilibrium of the attachment system
- Laying the groundwork for being able to separate from caregiver and trust the outside world
- This phase lasts into early childhood, and a firm attachment is what allows toddlers and young children to retain feelings of security through more lengthy and frequent separations from the primary caregiver


What are the patterns of attachment with primary mother figures studied by Mary Ainsworth & others?

1. Secure attachment
2. Avoidant attachment
3. Resistant/ambivalent attachment
4. Disorganized attachment


What is secure attachment?

- Healthy balance between wanting close contact with mothering one and wanting to explore
- 65% of toddlers


What is avoidant attachment?

- Infant is indifferent to mother when she's there and when she leaves


What is resistant/ambivalent attachment?

- Becomes upset when mother leaves, but is not comforted by her when she returns.
- Could be seen often in children who have been abused.


What is disorganized attachment?

- Toddler lacks any coherent, organized method for dealing with stress of separation from mothering figure (e.g.: crying loudly while trying to climb onto mother's lap.)


What was Mary Ainsworth study about?

Studied infants reaction when mother returned to show their relationship/attachment to mother.


What are some other important attachments in children's lives?

- Fathers, older siblings, grandparents, extended families, out-of-home caregivers, daycare.


What is important to know about other attachments in children's lives?

- Infants become attached to those who provide quality care
- Additional sources of attachments are particularly useful for child, especially if there are disruptions in attachment/emotional synchronicity between the mother and baby (e.g.: If mother suffers from mental illness)


What are some outcomes for children that were securely attached as infants?

- More curious in preschool because they feel safer to explore the environment
- Play more cooperatively with peers (less angry and aggressive)
- Have better relationships with teachers because they are more likely to trust other adults
- Display more self-confidence as children (autonomy v. shame/doubt)
- More open in expressing feelings as teens (better able to relate to others)


What is reactive attachment disorder?

- Caused by significant neglect and lack of reliable, consistent primary caregiver(s).
- Never been able to build bonds and feel safe
- Could develop when children are in the following settings: orphanages, long-term foster care as opposed to adoption.


What are social learning theories?

Human development and learning based on the modifications of behavior caused by forming associations between observable behaviors and their consequences (both positive and negative)


What is the basic principle of behaviorist learning theories?

People gradually acquire behaviors and personality styles as a result of experiences with their enviornment


What is the definition of the term "maladaptive behavior"?

- Involve bad habits that were learned in maladaptive environments.
- Postulates that antisocial children have learned negative, maladaptive behaviors


What is observational learning/modeling?

Humans have capacity to learn and acquire (i.e.: internalize) skills and knowledge in the absence of rewards and punishments (e.g.: learning language)
- Coined by Bandura
- Context plays a huge role in either eliciting or inhibiting learned response tendencies


What is vicarious conditioning

- People acquiring fears as well as likes and dislikes by observing others' reactions. Not only fear of spiders and disliking certain foods, but also fear of strangers, disliking certain groups of people, certain types of people, etc.
- Context plays a huge role in either eliciting or inhibiting learned response tendencies


What is Uri Brofenbrenner's Ecological Systems Model?

Focuses on the context/environment in which a child grows up. The model views the individual as growing up within a system of concentric circles of influence.


What are the concentric circles of influence in the Ecological Systems Model?

1. Individual level
2. Microsystem
3. Mesosystems
4. Macrosystem & Exosystem


What is the individual level in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Biological (hormonal levels, flight v. fight response, being victim of abuse, PTSD)
- Cognitive (IQ, decision-making ability, problem solving abilities)
- Emotional factors within the individual (temperament, self-control, effects of early attachments or lack of them)


What is the microsystem in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Includes family and other people that come into consistent contact with the individual every day.
- Includes: Demographic & parental characteristics, child-rearing practices, family functioning


What is the mesosystems in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Includes neighborhoods, communities, peer groups (peer influence), and schools (do they feel it's relevant? Tied to success? Connected to their school?)


What is the macrosystem & exosystem in the Ecological Systems Model?

- Refers to cultural and societal influences on a person. This includes national government, what decade one is growing up in, types of media.
- Include, poverty, media, accessibility of guns, societal/cultural drug & alcohol abuse


When did society become concern for the welfare of children?

- Relatively new concept
- First half of 20th century child advocates raised public consciousness; legislation on behalf of children began


The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child outlined 4 broad rights that define the personhood of a child. What are the 4 rights?

1. Survival (children are not property, must be fed, protected & nurtured)
2. Protection (from physical, sexual, psychological abuse; neglect; economic exploitation)
3. Development (right to an education; family environment, not institution or on the street; play & leisure)
4. Participation (express & have opinions taken into account; access to information; freedom of association & assembly for teens; freedom of thoughts & religion


The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child was NOT ratified by the U.S., but the U.S. has 6 broad principles from the UN convention that guides U.S. policy. This includes:

1. Policies should promote a sense of dignity
2. Provision of services for children should assume highest priority
3. Children should have the right to express their own views freely in all matters affecting them (i.e.: They should have a voice in court and social services provided)
4. Policies should promote the integrity of the family (e.g.: reconciliation before removal; shared decision making)
5. Children have a right to a family environment (as opposed to institutionalization)
6. Prevention of harm should be the foundation of all policy and practice decisions


In 1991 The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect - Places the child's needs at the center of maltreatment. This focuses on 3 broad categories of children's rights:

1. Respect and dignity by virtue of being a person (personhood as opposed to being property of parents)
2. Right to a safe and healthy family as opposed to unsafe, abusive family or growing up in an institution)
3. Communities must look out for protection of children (e.g.: ACS, protective/preventative services)