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Flashcards in Final Deck (56):

What is the Sociological definition of self and self concept?

The self is a relatively stable set of perceptions of who we are in relation to ourselves, to OTHERS, and to SOCIAL SYSTEMS. The self is organized around a self-concept, the ideas and feelings that we have about ourselves.


What is a griefer?

A griefer is an online version of a spoilsport. Someone who takes pleasure in shattering the world of play itself. What they enjoy most about online games is to make other players not enjoy them. Their work is complete when their victims log off in a huff.


What is a cyber bully/stalker?

These people use the internet to to harass a particular target, often using fake identities or public websites to enable the harassment. Unlike trolls or griefers, who often seem to select random or ideologically-motivated targets, cyberr bullies/stalkers tend to target people they know from everyday life.


What is a social network?

The term social network was coined long before the internet existed. It was used to describe the structure formed by human relationships, and as a visual representaion of the people and organizations in society, and various one-to-one relationships between them. Sociologists developed a branch of mathematics called social network analysis to help them understand and explore social organization.


Who is Charles Taylor?

He is a Canadian philosopher best known for his contributions to political philosophy and philosophy of social science. He won a ton of awards.


What are some of Charles's Taylors main beleifs?

He believed that facts are, in part, infected by values. Human action is essentially teleogical.


What is Teleology?

The belief that purpose and design are a part of or are apparent in nature.
The doctrine that phenomena are guided not only by mechanical forces, but that they also move toward certain goals of self realization.


What does Charles Taylor reject?

He rejects that facts and values are distinct, and rejects that human actions is essentially mechanistic.


What are Charles Taylors three malaises?

1- Excessive Individualism
2- Instrumental Rationality
3- "Soft" despotism


What is Excessive Individualism?

It is one of Charles Taylors three malaises. In modernity, laws and morals have sprung up to protect individuals against large collective forces, such as oppressive cultural traditions, overreaching government powers, etc. The downside of breaking out of old hierarchies is a loss of meaning. By assigning a place to each thing and person, hierarchical societies made the world meaningful. In breaking out of these hierarchical constraints, individualist society loses a grand sense of meaning. The dark side of individualism is a withdrawal into out own narcissistic pleasure and pains with little regard for others or society. Individualism leads to loss of meaning, fading moral horizons, and breeds selfishness.


What is Instrumental Rationality?

It is one of Charles Taylors three malaises. It is the kind of rationality we draw on when we calculate the most economical applications of means to a given end. Maximum efficiency, the best cost-output ration, is it's measure of success. The fear is that we will use cost-output calculations to measure things that deserve a better standard of evaluation. i.e. The ways the demands of economic growth are used to justify very unequal distributions of wealth and income, or make us insensitive to the needs of the environment, to the point of disaster. Instrumental reason explains the prestige of technology and it's increased use in areas of life where it is not optimal, such as the emotional care of patients. Summary: Economic growth is used to justify inequalities. Quality is sacrificed for efficiency. People use other people, rather than engaging in relationships.


What is "Soft" despotism?

It is one of Charles Taylor's three malaises . Soft despotism results from a government keeping us content individually, without calling for our participation. This gives people the illusion that they are in control, when in fact they have very little influence over their government. We lose freedom because we are too self-concerned. Consumers are too self-absorbed to bother with politics.


What is Charles Taylor's definition of self?

Self is not merely subjective perceptions and not merely a social phenomenon either. Self is the voice of nature within which gives us our moral sense.


What is Charles Taylor's definition of self concept?

Self concept is a place and moment of Earth which negates its very nonexistence.


Why does Charles Taylor think the goal of self-fulfilment fails?

It fails because it doesn't take into account: The demands of our ties with others, and the demands emanating from something more, or other than human desires or aspirations.


What does Charles Taylor think Authenticity requires?

It requires that we develop our unique characteristics in relation to something beyond our own desires. Our identities are shaped and maintained through our concerns and interactions with 'significant' others.


What is the authentic self?

The authentic self is outside the range of conscious reflection. It is an inner self that is good, pure and well-intentioned Your self is what you are.


What did Marshal McLuhan believe?

He believed that media are extensions of humanity. Each media extends some natural human process. "The book is an extension of the eye, electric circuity is an extension of the central nervous system, the wheel is an extension of the foot. The medium is the message. Certain meida are better at conveying certain ideas than others. Media is often overlooked because we are focused on the content.


What is Marshal McLuhan's tetrad?

It is four questions to help analyze a new medium and foresee it's effects: Enchanced, Obsolesced, Retrieval, and Reversal.


What is Enhanced?

It is one of the questions in McLuhans's Tetrad. What does the new medium enhance, intensify, make possible or accelerate? (Washing Machine: Speed of doing Laundry)


What is Obsolesced?

It is one of the questions in McLuhans's Tetrad. If some aspect of a situation is enlarged or enhance by a new medium, simultaneously the old condition or unenhanced situation is displaced thereby. What is pushed aside or obsolesced by the new medium? (Washing Machine: Tub and scrub board)


What is Retrieval?

What recurrence or retrieval of earlier actions and services is brought into play simultaneously by the new form? What older, previously obsolesced ground is brought back and inheres in the new form? (Washing Machine: Super clean house expected again)


What is Reversal?

When pushed to the limits of it's potential, the new form will tend to reverse what had been it's original characteristics. What is the reversal potential of the new form? ( Washing Machine: Constantly doing laundry)


How are the internet and behaviour addiction related?

Does the internet create an environment that promotes addictive behaviour? The internet increases peoples access to video games, gambling, and pornography (More convenient). The internet makes all these potential addictions private, which creates less deterrents. (Not running into a family member or friend that you lied to at the casino).


What is Stuxnet?

It is an extremely sophisticated computer worm that attacked Iranian nuclear power plant centrifuges. It targeted a specific type of machine system architecture, and is so complex it is theorized to be the work of a nations state. It is considered an act of cyber warfare by many.


How is Freedom of Expression stated in the United States?

First Amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."


How is Freedom of Expression stated in Canada?

Section 2:
This section lists "fundamental freedoms" theoretically applying to everyone in Canada, regardless of whether ehy are a Canadian citizen, or an individual or corporation. Freedom of expression, religion, though belief, peaceful assembly, and freedom of association.


How is Freedom of Expression stated in Canada?

Section 2:
This section lists "fundamental freedoms" theoretically applying to everyone in Canada, regardless of whether they are a Canadian citizen, or an individual or corporation. Freedom of expression, religion, though belief, peaceful assembly, and freedom of association.


What is filtering?

Filtering is the interception and removal of messages in a network to prevent them from reaching their destination.


What is Political Censorship?

Censoring for the purpose of influencing politics and power. It is when a government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information that it's citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets.


What is Political Dissent?

Political Dissent refers to any expression designed to convey dissatisfaction with or opposition to the policies of a governing body. Such expression may take forms form vocal disagreement to civil disobedience to the use of violence.


What is the Marketplace of Ideas?

The Marketplace of Ideas is a rationale for freedom of expression based on an analogy to the economic concept of a free market. The marketplace of ideas holds that the truth will emerge from the competition of ideas in free, transparent public discourse, and concludes that ideas and ideologies will be culled according to their superiority or inferiority and widespread acceptance among the population. John Stuart Mill wrote about this idea.


What is the Miller test for defining obscene materials?

1- The average adult person, applying community standards, would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the purient interest of the viewer.
2- The work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable stat law.
3- The work, taken as a whole, lacks Serious Literary, Artistic, Political or Scientific values. (SLAPS test).


How does the authentic self inform our understanding of right and wrong?

Some argue that in order to be a good and happy person, we must eliminate the incompatibilities between our different selves. A person who maintains multiple personas may risk becoming a hypocrite--That is someone who claims to follow a particular moral code, but then acts contrary to that code.


What are some examples of speech that is NOT protected under free speech laws?

Speech that is NOT protected:
-Dangerous: Yelling "fire" in a crowded theater.
-Treasonous: Revealing military secrets.
-Seditious: Untrue criticisms of the government. Espionage.
-Hate: Derogatory remarks about a race, religion, or culture.
-Harmful to children, violent, disgusting, pornographic, psychologically painful, or blasphemous.


How is Net Neutrality related to free speech?

Net Neutrality is championed by free speech advocates, saying that Internet service providers nor governments should impose any restrictions on a user's access to networks that participate in the internet because of the legal content of the information transferred, computing platform, point of origin, or point of destination. This is fundamental to maintaining truly open communication on the internet. Advocates of net neutrality argue that the internet is more central to communication that any previous medium.


What are vulnerable populations, and why are they vulnerable?

Vulnerable populations include: Children, the elderly, and people with certain mental disorders. They are unable to exercise autonomy, and are thus vulnerable to surrogate decision makers.


What are least advantaged populations?

Least advantaged populations refer to John Rawl's theory of Justice, and the people who receive the least economic resources due to economic inequalities.


From an ethical standpoint, how can we justify paying special attention to society's most vulnerable?

John Rawl's theory of justice, justifies this. We would not want to live in a society unless it conformed to the difference principle. Which is: Differences in socio-economic status should be allowed if and only they benefit the least advantaged. He believes this view of society is correct because, if we didn't know if we would belong to a vulnerable group or not, even a selfish person would choose this.


What is Threat Analysis?

It is an attempt to systematically identify the ways that a technology might be vulnerable to a malicious attack. Who might want to abuse this system? Why would they want to do so? What will they do with the system that they should not?


What is autonomy?

Freedom for an entity to make decisions without outside constraints or interference.


How does ethics of caring interact with vulnerable populations?

According to the ethics of caring, we are not obligated to care about everyone. We are only morally obligated to be concerned with people with whom we have natural or formal relationships. It follows that if we have no relationships with people in vulnerable populations, we are not obligated to care for them.


What is the World Health Organizations definition of "Sex"?

Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women.


What is the World Health Organizations definition of "Gender"?

Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.


What is intelligence?

The ability to learn and reason from experience and apply that knowledge to make more effective decisions in the future.


What is artificial intelligence?

It is a human-made object's ability to learn and reason.


What is machine learning?

These are types of algorithms that allow computers to take in data and automatically learn to recognize patterns and make predictions about them.


What is Augmented Reality?

This is a computer graphics technology that draws virtual objects laid over the real world. , and the user cannot always easily tell which objects are real and which are virtual.


What is a flash crash?

This was a crash in the U.S. stock market caused by high-frequency algorithmic trading. First, a large mutual fund told a computer to sell $4.1 billion worth of assets. Normally this would happen over the span of 5 hours, but the program sold it in 20 minutes, causing prices to drop rapidly. Others programs running high-frequency trading software bought the mutual fund assets, but quickly realized something was wrong in the market and tried to sell back the assets, causing prices to drop further. The algorithms eventually pulled out of the market all together. With the algorithms out of the market, this make stocks hard to sell, and the sellers incorrectly assumed their prices were too high, and they automatically started slashing prices, causing the stock market to drop. There was no one point of failure.


What is the PageRank Algorithm?

This algorithm looks at the links between web pages to figure out which web pages are most important. The basic idea is that a web page that 100 other web pages link to is probably better than a page that only 3 other pages link to. Also, a link from a better web pages is superior to a less linked web pages. It's like web pages are 'voting' for eachother, and some votes are more heavily weighted. This prevents people tricking the algorithm by making 1000's of crappy webpages that link to them.


What is the difference between Freedom of expression in the U.S. and Canada?

The Supreme Court of Canada upholds anti-hate speech laws, whereas, the United States Supreme Court consistently overturns laws barring expression of “hateful” opinions (unless they are directly inciting violence against specific groups)


How does Utilitarianism interact with vulnerable groups?

Since vulnerable groups are a minority, utilitarian calculus would always fail them. Resources would always go to the majority, and result in more happiness. Vulnerable groups will always be neglected by utilitarianism.


What does pervasive mean in regards to technology?

The pervasive technology is one that has spread widely throughout society.


How does autonomy influence pervasiveness?

When a technology becomes more autonomous, it become easier to use, and cheaper to operate. This leads to people using that technology more often, and in new situations, making it more pervasive.


How does pervasiveness influence autonomy?

If a technology is already widely used and adapted, the incentives to automate that technology, and make it easier and cheaper to operate are high.


What are some implications of Augmented Reality becoming more pervasive in society?

Billboards could be replaced with person-specific ads that we see when wearing special augmented glasses. Content restrictions could be circumvented using augmented reality, because the restricted content isn't actually shown publicly.