Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (59):
What is Michael Davis's definition of Ethics?
A set of morally permissible standards of a group that each member of the group (at his/her rational best) wants every other member to follow even if their doing so would mean that he/she must do the same.
What is Michael Bayles consensus view of a profession?
-Requires extensive training.
-Involves significant intellectual effort.
-Provides an important service to society
-Certification of licensing.
-Organization of members.
-Autonomy in one's work.
What is the Good Works Project?
It is a large research study at the Harvard Graduate School of Education led by Wendy Fischman. It examines how young people deal with ethical problems in their professions.
What is the Good Works Project's definition of a Profession?
This is the LEAST RESTRICTIVE definition of profession:
Any career in which the worker is awarded a degree of AUTONOMY in return for services to the public that are performed at a HIGH LEVEL. It is within the power of the individual worker to behave like a professional, should they choose to do so.
What are John Kultgen's 13 core attributes of a profession?
MOST RESTRICTIVE definition of profession.
1-Involves a skill based on a theoretical foundation.
2-Requires extensive education.
3-Requires passing an exam.
4-Is organized and represented by one or more professional organizations.
5-Adheres to a code of conduct.
6-Provides altruistic (selfless concern for the well-being of others) service.
7-Requires members to assume responsibility for the affairs of others.
8-Is indispensable for the public good.
9-Members are licensed, so their work is sanctioned by the community.
10-Members are independent practitioners, serving individual clients.
11-Members have a fiduciary (involving trust) relationship with their clients.
12-Members do their best to serve their clients impartially without regard to any special relationship
13-Members are compensated by fees or fixed charges.
4 5 6 8 10 11
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What is Michael Davis's definition of profession, and how is it different from other definitions?
A profession is a number of individuals in the same occupation VOLUNTARILY organized to earn a living by openly serving a certain MORAL IDEAL in a MORALLY PERMISSIBLE way beyond what law, market and morality would otherwise require.
This is different than other definitions because "profession" is defined in terms of moral issues.
What is the definition of "morally permissible"?
Something that is either explicitly moral or morally neutral.
What is Michael Davis's definition of "moral ideal"?
A moral ideal is a state off affairs that, though not morally required, everyone (every rational person at his/her rational best) wants everyone else to approach, all else being equal. Everyone wants that so much that they are wiling to reward, assist, or at least praise such conduct if that is the price for others to do the same.
Anyone violating the moral is disproved of, criticized, and discouraged from such behavior.
What are Michael Davis's necessary requirements of a profession? Do these requirements need to be enforced?
"Profession" cannot be defined without (something like) a code of ethics.
"Professionalism" cannot be taught without teaching the code.
"Professions" cannot be understood without understanding them as bound by such a code.
Without a code of ethics, there are no professions, just honest occupations, and trade associations.
Davis's definition of profession does NOT require the code of ethics to be enforced.
According to Michael Davis, what does professional put first?
A professional puts profession first. Meaning that if a conflict arises between the professionals code of ethics, and the policy of an employer, or even the law, the professionals code must take precedence.
i.e. A journalist going to jail instead of revealing their sources, or a doctor refusing to violate doctor-patient privilege in a country that does not recognize it.
What are some examples of enforced and non-enforced codes of ethics?
Enforced: Parts of the code of ethics for law and medicine are enforced by laws, and professional organizations. (i.e. You can lose your license to practice, or go to jail).
Non-enforced: Wedding vows, the Hippocratic Oath and the Oath of office taken by certain government officials. These are all forms of a code of ethics meant to influence peoples behavior, but none of the conditions or declarations are directly enforced in any way.
What are the two best known computing codes of ethics in the US?
The ACM/IEEE Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice.
The ACM Code of Ethics.
Who popularized the definition of privacy as "the right to be left alone"?
Louis Brandeis and Samuel Warren popularized the definition of privacy as the "right to be left alone", or "right to be free from intrusion".
In their 1890 article for the Harvard Law Review, they stated that advancing technology (newspapers and instant photography) is increasingly invading people's private and domestic lives, leading to the prediction that "what is whispered in the closet shall be proclaimed from the house tops."
What is the definition of a "right"?
A right is a liberty or entitlement owed to a person simply because he or she is a person, and the obligation to respect the rights of others.
What is meant by the "right to be left alone"?
Freedom from intrusion--a conception of privacy that focuses on the grievance felt by the harmed party and on actions that directly make them feel harassed, embarrassed, or exposed.
What is meant by "privacy as concealment", and who is it's main proponent?
"Privacy as concealment" asserts that there is no fundamental right to privacy, and that people are interested in privacy only because the want to conceal their own wrongdoing, or prevent embarrassment.
Judge Richard Posner.
"As a social good, I think privacy is greatly overrated because privacy basically means concealment. People conceal things in order to fool other people about them. They want to appear healthier than they are, smarter, more honest and so forth. It is what economists call a superior good; the demand for it rises as people become wealthier. This is because it has instrumental value, you want to control information about yourself; that will enable you to make advantageous transactions personally. professionally, and commercially with other people."
Who thinks privacy will become obsolete and why? (3 reasons)
Judge Richard Posner argues that in the future, modern notions of privacy will be obsolete. His argument has 3 parts:
1- Pre-modern peoples (living in small villages and tribal cultures) had no real ability to conceal anything about themselves, and therefore no privacy. It is perfectly natural for people to live with little or no privacy.
2- Contemporary people are willing to give up their private information, and become transparent in return for very small financial incentives or improvements in convenience. This proves that we do not value individual privacy.
3- Concealment is most useful to criminals, and least useful to honest people. Therefore privacy is mostly a social harm that reduces safety, not a social good.
List the 5 major Ethical theories and briefly summarize they approach an ethical dilemma. (quick Chapter 1 review)
Kantian: Can I will that the action taken be made in to universal law?
Utilitarian: What’s going to produce the best consequence/the greatest good for the greatest number of people?
The Ethics of Care: Is this action encouraging, or detracting from, one-caring?
Contractarian: Would self interest support entering into this type of contract or cooperative enterprise?
Virtue Ethics: What does the action say about the character of the individual and their relationship to their community?
What is the "traditional method" of defining privacy?
The traditional method of defining privacy is taking a "top-down" approach by defining privacy's essence or core characteristics.
What is the "bottom-up" approach to defining privacy? Who created this definition and why?
The "bottom-up" approach starts with a list of the common kinds of privacy problems, as to avoid an endless debate of what is or is not "privacy". With a list of specific problems, it is easier to try and solve each one individually. It also provides technology makers with a checklist of common privacy problems.
Daniel Solove created this approach to avoid the "endless disputes over what falls inside or outside the domain of privacy." and to assist in decision making.
What are the 4 main categories of the Taxonomy of Privacy Problems, with some examples of each? Who created them?
1-Information Collection: Surveillance, Interrogation.
2-Information Processing: Aggregation, Identification, exclusion.
3- Information Dissemination: Blackmail, Distortion, Disclosure.
4- Invasion: Intrusion, Decisional Interference.
How are the major privacy ideas proposed in Chapter 3 different from a typical dictionary entry?
The three major dictionary definitions of contradict each other and lead to different conclusions. They are also not broad enough to capture every problem we think of as a privacy problem.
Define and give an example of Aggregation as a privacy problem.
Aggregation: Collecting many small pieces of information about a person and linking them together to create new information.
The website PleaseRobMe.com collected freely available information from the internet and social media status updates (Facebook, Twitter etc.) and aggregated it all together to find people's home address's and when they will not be home. Thus making them vulnerable to burglary.
Define and give an example of Exclusion as a privacy problem.
Exclusion: Failing to notify individuals that their data is being collected, or failing to provide a way for individuals to view or correct such data.
A teacher submits her students paper to a Plagiarism Preventer website (that stores the paper permanently for other to refer to) without the students consent.
What is Panopticism and who was it's main proponent?
Panopticism explores the influence of persistent surveillance on society, comparing modern society to the modern prison.
Panopticism encourages self-discipline through the surveillance or the implication of surveillance.
What is a Panopticon?
It is a prison design proposed by Jeremy Bentham. The prison is built as a ring of cells, with a watch tower in the middle. Each prisoner is in a separate cell so they cannot oraganize or riot, and it is well lit. Each cell has an external window to let in light, and an internal window so the guard(s) in the central watch tower can see in. The tower is kept dark, with venetian blinds covering the windows so the prisoner cannot see in, and do not know how many guards are in it at any given time.
Since the prisoners never know if they are being watched, they assume they are being watched all the time, and thus discipline themselves.
What is the chilling effect? Give an example.
The chilling effect is used to refer to a situation in which one feels pressure not to do something, even though it is legal to do so because of fear of prosecution.
American authors may avoid making defamatory but true statements that would be protected under U.S. law, because they fear prosecution in other countries. This is because of differences in the definition of libel between countries.
What social institutions employ Panoptic design and how?
Public Schools: The government uses the public school system to look for evidence of child abuse or neglect, requiring teachers to look for and report such evidence to police.
Hospitals: They are required to report instances of specific diseases to the Center for Disease Control so the government can detect and track outbreaks.
What is Copyright?
It is the main mechanism for protecting creative works such as art, music and writing. In the U.S. copyright protects "original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression" in literature, music, drama, pantomime, graphic art, movies, sound recordings sculpture and architecture.
What does Copyright NOT protect?
Copyright does NOT protect ideas, facts or common knowledge.
It does NOT protect creative works until the appear in a tangible form. (i.e. Dance choreography is not protected until a video recording is made of it.)
What is the difference between piracy and theft?
Piracy: Nothing has gone missing, but something is stolen. The intentional illegal copying of copyrighted material.
Theft: Something is physically illegally taken.
We use "piracy" instead of "theft" to emphasize that there are morally significant differences between copying intangible property and stealing physical objects.
What is fair use?
It is a law that allows people to use copyrighted material without permission, as long as fair use is followed.
The fair use of a copyrighted work for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research is not an infringement of copyright.
What are the 4 main factors to consider when determining fair use?
1- The purpose or character of the use. Including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes.
2- The nature of the copyrighted work
3- The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
4- The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
What is DRM?
Digital Rights Management: This refers to a collection of technologies that work together to ensure that copyrighted content can be only viewed by the person who purchased it.
i.e. An e-book purchased for your Kindle cannot (legally) be read on your friends Kindle.
What is the Doctrine of first sale?
It states that we are not entitled to a second royalty.
i.e. Whoever lawfully buys your product gains the right to resell it and profit without the authority of the copyright owner.
Once you purchase a copy of book, that copy is yours to resell.
What are the main criticisms of the DMCA?
It makes the right to fair use, and exercising one's right under the doctrine of first sale legally impossible.
Even though copyright law explicitly gives the public these rights, they cannot be exercised because copyrighted digital goods cannot be legally transferred or resold without illegally circumventing the Digital Rights Management system.
Even if you somehow sent your friend and e-book that you bought, and then immediately deleted your copy of it, you would still be violating copyright laws.
What is the DMCA?
Digital Millennium Copyright Act: This was an update to many parts of the U.S. code to deal with modern copyright issues.
Particularly, "No person shall circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title."
What is an invention?
An invention involves the discovery of "any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof". An invention is not valued for it's aesthetics, but for it's usefulness.
What is a patent?
A legal document that makes it so no one else can "make, use, offer to sell, or sell" the invention without the patent holders permission. This allows the patent holder to profit off their invention.
What is a trademark?
A trademark is a legally registered word, phrase, symbol, sound or other item that identifies a particular product, service, or corporation.
How do you receive a trademark and how long does it last?
You must already be using the mark to represent a product or service, and your mark must not be easily confused with a competing product's trademark. Then you can register it with the United States Patent and Trademark office. The trademark lasts ten years and can be renewed indefinitely.
What is an argument in favor of protecting intellectual property?
If intellectual property is protected, then the creators can earn a living through their innovations, and continue to create. This promotes progress in science, technology, and the arts.
What is an argument against protecting intellectual property?
If intellectual property is protected, less people will have access to those ideas, which can stifle their ability it innovate, thus not contributing progress to society.
Sharing digital files is a way to participate in building a culture. The right to culture secures the rights of people to communicate and share media as an expression of culture
What is a Requirements Engineer?
They ensure that clients needs are identified and understood.
What is a white hat hacker?
Someone who gets paid to legally break into systems by the people who own the systems.
Their goal is to seek out vulnerabilities so they can be removed before a malicious intruder discovers them and launches an attack.
What are the ethical implications of white hat hacking?
If the hired hacker gets caught doing something that appears unethical, they can claim that they were merely "doing their jobs." This can be particularly problematic when the ethical hacker was previously convicted of illegal hacking.
The education and training of hackers is controversial. Proponents say that teaching ethical hacking better equips a person for preventing hacking. Opponents argue that teaching hacking skills is teaching someone how to be a criminal.
What is a grey hat hacker?
A grey hat hacker may sometimes violate the law or ethical standards in the process of finding vulnerabilities and security flaws in systems. They hack into systems without permission, but they do not have malicious intent. They will not exploit that vulnerability or tell other about the vulnerability, and they may notify the company of the flaw, or offer to fix it themselves.
What is a black hat hacker?
A black hat hacker illegally and unethically seeks out vulnerabilities and security flaws of systems with the sole purpose of malicious intent or personal gain.
What is the value of testing software?
Testing software helps ensure that a program has no bugs that lead to unintentional consequences, system failure, incorrect output etc. Testing helps the software perform it's intended actions as often and as accurately as possible.
What are the complications of testing software?
The ideal way to test a program is to create a test for every possible situation the program may encounter, and make sure that no matter what the input, the program will work correctly. This is impossible though because the number of different instruction sequences in even a moderately sized program is enormous.
A program with only 100 decision points would have over 10^30 different execution sequences, and take billions of years to test.
What is a decision point?
A decision point is a place in computer code where the next instruction executed depends on input data.
What is floating point?
One way computers store numeric values is by using floating point numbers. It is similar to scientific notation. They are useful in programming because they can handle a large range of magnitudes, due to the "floating" decimal point. If we had a 5 digit system to represent floating point numbers, then we could put a "floating point" (F) anywhere we wanted. If we put it in the third decimal place splitting up the significand from the exponent (i.e. 123.45, but the decimal is not actually shown in the the computer). Assuming base 10, F12345 = 1.23*10^45, or F12345 = 1.234*10^5.
What is a potential problem with floating point?
There can be a loss of precision when using floating point (F) number. For example: If we are using a 5 bit system to represent numbers, and we wanted to display the integers 12,3451, 12,3452, and 12,3453 they would all be represented as F12305 = 1.23*10^5, even though they are different numbers.
Also, if we wanted to represent the number
F12311 = 1.23*10^11 as an integer, that would be impossible in our 5 bit system, since it requires 12 bits to display. (123,000,000,000). When the computer tries to put 12 bits in a 5 bit memory cell, this results in an "arithmetic overflow error".
The Ariane 5 rocket used 64 bit Floating point, and 16 bit integers. Since they just copy and pasted the code from the Ariane 4 rocket, the old software could not keep up with the faster speeds and larger values, and when converting a a large 64 bit floating point number into a 16 bit integer, it did not fit and there was an arithmetic overflow error and the rocket exploded.
An error causes Intel's Pentium chip to make mistakes when dividing floating-point numbers that occur within a specific range. ¤For example, dividing 4195835.0/3145727.0 yields 1.33374 instead of 1.33382¤an error of 0.006 percent.
What is phishing?
Phishing is a way to exploit human weakness by attempting to fool or frighten someone into revealing key information. For example, someone may claim to work for the IT department of your school, and send an official looking e-mail to you stating that there is an error with your account, or a security flaw. The e-mail has a link, that when clicked opens a fake, but official looking e-mail login page requesting a username and password.
If you type in your information, it goes to the person who is running the phishing scam, and they now have your info.
What is a multi-process program?
They are programs that execute at the same time as one or more other programs. These programs must coordinate with each other so they do not get in each others way. They often have real time constraints and must execute within a specific amount of time.
For example: The software controlling acceleration when a car is on cruise control must coordinate with the braking system so it does not accelerate when the driver applies the brakes.
What is a safety critical system?
A safety critical system is software that may affect someones safety if it fails to work properly. This includes software that could potentially harm the environment, which would indirectly harm humans.
These systems are often control systems (controls some sort of machinery) with real-time constraints that make them very complicated and intricate.
Some examples of such systems are air traffic control software, nuclear power plant software, automobile breaking software, patient monitoring software in an intensive care unit or hospital.
What is a worm?
A program that makes copies of itself and propagates those copies through a network to infect other computers.
What is a virus?
Malware which is similar to a worm, but resides in another program. That program must execute in order for the virus to propagate.