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impact of film, and the art/commerce aspect of filmmaking

cinema has the broadest exposure. artistic medium of the 20th century.
More linked to commerce than any other art.
Artistic and commercial interests are tied up in film making. Look to see if more art or more commerce, look at each end on film continuum and then see where it sits.
Commerce: vehicle for star, entertaining but forgettable visual story. Rarely stand test of time. generational based.
Art: visionary, script, compelling acting, innovative cinematography, distinctive design.



They oversee the financial, legal, and material details of the film. Hire people. Worry about budgets therefore more invested.



Have to develop very specialized skills and talents. tend to cultivate smaller gestures and expressions.


production designer

Gives a film their own unique "look".
Focus on elements such as colors, textures, appearance, and so on.
oversees Costumes, props, sets, makeups.



write scripts for films. they write with filmed images in their head. Changes considerably when filmed.
Good script: has meaning tied to the moving image.
Bad script calls attention to itself.



only one. responsible for tone and style of film. Greatest input and control over the whole process from beginning to end. Director's work precedes that of the writers.
Director has distinctive style.



Ability to control the eye of the audience. They must draw us into the action and engage both our thoughts and our emotional reactions. Must convey meaning but be interesting.
"Artists of the moving image"



Most films require massive team of editors who have the postproduction job of taking all the raw footage of the film. Add effects, put in order, can spend months in postproduction.
Editors show a major influence on the pace of the film. they can change the speed.



early days of silent films, piano or organ players would provide music.
Write soundtracks, and use music to color a scene. Creates an artistic marriage between image and sound.


IMR definition and meaning

institutional mode of representation. specific cinematic techniques that provoke specific responses in the audience.


Establishing shot.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

a long shot that shows the audience the overall location of the film before moving in on the action. Also aerial shots.
Helps us feel oriented to a particular place and space.
lets the audience know the overall location and layout of a particular scene or sequence.


Long shot.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

filmed from a distance and shows broad view of the scene. used to "objectify" the action. less control over the audience. help locate characters or show larger scope.


medium shot.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

shows character from head to toe. often show us relationships between characters. how closely they are located to each other and how they interact.


close up.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

filmed up close, showing a limited view of the scene. (only face) draws audience into action and identify with it. intensify emotional expression.


low-angle shot.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

films subject from below. makes the subject larger than life and intensifies action. makes heroes more powerful and villains more threatening and evil.


high-angle shot.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

taken from above the action. bird's eye view. makes characters small and vulnerable or isolated.


point-of-view shot.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

shows from the characters POV. helps relate to character.


tracking shot.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

infuse a scene with energy, as they visually follow the action and actor through every twist and turn. Camera moves from one point to another.


Straight Cut.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

straightforward, unobtrusive joining of two shots or scenes. unobtrusive, non attention seeking story telling.
ex. shot of mom telling son to clean room, then cuts directly to a shot of son looking mad at mom.


Jump cut.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

sudden jump forward or backward in space or time for no apparent logical reason. Used to comment thematically or metaphorically on something. do it figuratively.
NOT flashbacks or forward jumps to a new scene.
ex. couple fighting, then b/w scene of bullfight.


Cross Cut.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

increase suspense as the audience jumps back and forth between events that are happening in different locations at the same time.
ex. hostage tied to bomb, same time hero at headquarters looking


Match Cut.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

encourage the characters to compare two different characters, ideas, or objects by comparing two adjacent shots. Matches similar physical shapes or layouts wihtin the frame. creates visual and logical link.
ex. head out front door on right excited, comes back through right front door tired.


transitional technique: Fade.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

image either fades out (to black or white screen) or fades in (from a b or w screen).
They slow pace of film more than straight cuts.
Tend to create a slower or more lyrical feel to a scene. also suggest passage of time.


transitional technique: Dissolve.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

slow the pace of the film, creates a smooth and lyrical transition as one scene fades in while the other dissolves out.
SUPERIMPOSITION (two images on top)
used for thoughts or memories, or gently move locations.


transitional technique: Wipe.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

a line passes across the screen in any direction, eliminating the first image as it passes through the frame and replaces it.
they call attention to themselves, used in fantasy or farce.


transitional technique: Iris.
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

lend an artificial or fantasy touch to a moment where our focus is directed to a small section of the screen.
single point in center that expands to fill screen or opposite.


special camera techniques
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

movement of the camera from left to right around the imaginary vertical axis that runs through the camera from top to bottom.
Used in conjunction with POV shots to show where character is looking. also to scan a landscape.


special camera techniques
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

shot with the camera tilts up or down, rotation on the horizontal axis that runs on camera.
used in POV shots.


special camera techniques
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

lens adjust the focal length.
used to
(1) direct the audience's focus to a detail within a long or medium shot
(2) intensify a characters reaction. ends up more comical or campy.


rack/follow focus. and Deep focus.
special camera techniques
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

Rack/ Follow:
shifting focus to direct the viewer's attention from one subject to another as it moves away from or toward the camera.
ex. character on bench, focus to see the cop staring at him

DEEP focus: all the characters and background remain in focus.
require us to pay attention to everything within the frame and often include some significant action deep in the frame.


Slow Motion and Fast Motion.
special camera techniques
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

Slow Motion: shot at a faster speed to appear slowed down.
Conveys dream states, fantasy, or illusion, or maximize a dramatic moment.

Fast Motion: gives a comic or frantic effect. compresses the passage of time.


Freeze Frame.
special camera techniques
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

a still shot created by repeating a single frame several times to give the illusion of a still photograph.
used to elevate the moment's importance.


special camera techniques
define each IMR term/technique, and to explain its effect on the viewer

Shaky footage that does not use the standard steady cam.
gives a realistic, gritty, or documentary-style feel to the film.


Early Silent Films: D. W. Griffiths ((Birth of a Nation)

D.W.- pioneered many IMR. never content with the simple.
Birth of a Nation: 3 hour epic, follows families during and after Civil war. Directs emotions. (seems overly dramatic now).
Provoked riots because of its racist and demeaning depictions of blacks and glorification of the KKK.
Uses irises during assassination.


Hollywood Studio Films: The Wizard of Oz

Wizard of Oz: Went from sepia to Technicolor.
Produced by MGM. needed studio backing. The massive scale of The Wizard of Oz, and the massive resources demanded, ensured that only a major studio with financial and material resources to spare could make such a film. chose Dorothy gale cause she can sing and not shirley temple.

HSF: For all its flaws, the Hollywood studio system was able to concentrate artistic talent in a pool of cast and crew who all worked at the same studio.


Italian Neorealism: Vittorio de Sica (Bicycle Thieves)

By the late 1940s, most Hollywood films were in color, but the Italian Neorealists used black-and-white film for a grittier, newsreel feel.
The characters in Vittorio de Sica’s film Bicycle Thieves were played by “common” people who had never acted in films before.
In the clip you watched, Antonio, after much deliberation, tries to steal a bicycle, only to be apprehended almost instantly.


French New Wave: Jean-Luc Goddard (Breathless)

Goddard often omitted establishing shots to maximize a sense of disorientation.

It is evident in many of Jean-Luc Goddard’s films that the actors have been given a basic setup of a few key lines and have been left to “create” the film as it is being filmed, no traditional script in sight.


The Blockbuster: Steven Spielberg (Jaws), George Lucas (Star Wars)

Steven Spielberg claimed that he was repeatedly almost fired from Jaws, his first blockbuster film.

George Lucas: warned that the Hollywood blockbuster may be in danger of imploding


World Cinema and Indie Film

Indie and foreign films have a better shot at gaining an audience today than ever before in film history.
Many film festivals now seek out or showcase independent films.
The internet has made films more readily available to a wider audience.
Digital technology, widely available, now offers more people the chance to make films.

NOT: The world is more eager to learn about other cultures through the medium of film.


define and identify

term for the man in a ballet.
ballerinas are the women.


Pas de Deux
define and identify

the soliloquy in a play or the aria in an opera. The highlight of the ballet. shows off the choreographer's skill as well as the virtuosity of the performers.
Translates to "step of two"
Typically for the lead ballerina and lead danseur.


En Pointe
define and identify

the movements when a ballet dancer supports all of his or her body weight on the tips of fully extended feet within pointe shoes


Les Ballet Russes

The famous performance in Paris (May 1909) of what is called “the greatest roster of dancers, some of whom became legends in their own lifetimes” was a group of dancers known as Les Ballet Russes.
Birth of a new era in ballet.

Important names to know from this performance were danseur Nijinsky and ballerina Pavlova.



Finest work is Apollo
Considered the greatest choreographer of the twentieth century. He successfully defected from the Soviet Union and formed the American Ballet Theater.
Though influenced by modern dance, Balanchine was strict in using classical ballet as the foundation for his dances.


Mademoiselle La Fontaine

Ballet was performed by men with only a few exceptions—one notable exception was the first ballerina, Mademoiselle De Lafontaine in 1681.



coined the phrase “total control and total freedom”


Misty Copeland

makes history as the first African American Female Principal Dancer with the prestigious American Ballet Theatre.

Copeland’s style may remind you of Baryshnikov’s because she has a similar power and athleticism. she is also elegant and graceful.



Athleticism and precision make his performances powerful and compelling. He may be the most gifted technical danseur of all time. While still in the Soviet Union, he was called by New York Times critic Clive Barnes “the most perfect dancer I have ever seen.”
starred in Movie "White Nights"


Isadora Duncan

(modern dance)
type of dance free to express emotions directly and spontaneously.
inspired by classical Greece.
suggests that before children learn to dance, they must first be taught to breathe


Merce Cunningham

(modern dance)
Pioneer of modern dance. Uses her body to express psychological states by means of contractions out of the solar plexus and back.
considered all body movements running, jumping, and falling as equally important.


Twila Tharp

(modern dance)
most innovative recent modern choreography. dances are another hybrid mixture of ballet discipline and modern freedom, more wide than martha graham.
Draws inspiration from pop dance forms (jazz, tap, and social dance) making it wholly improvised.


Martha Graham

(modern dance)
Inspired by Greek tragedy.
storytelling dance style.
Appalachian Spring- story broadens out to become a parable about Americans conquering a new land.
Graham danced the lead role herself, and her real husband danced the husband’s role. Note how Graham incorporates traditional square/frontier dance steps into her groundbreaking choreography.
had Copland compose music.



1. Preconceptions: modern dance is eclectic, personal, and often abstract. go in as empty cup to be filled, no preconceived expectations.

2. Judgement: only judge after performance, not during or before. All levels of perception, visual, musical, dramatic, kinetic, and philosophical and not all can be found in every dance. Apply the applicable levels.

3. Post conceptions: before you make your final judgement, you will periodically immerse yourself in several modern-dance concerts. They are the hardest to get into. Dancers want to speak to audience by having them plug their own life experiences into the interpretations of dance.


The basic formations of folk dance

Dances that reflect the values of the folk, the people of a certain geographical locale.

Basic formations:
Circle: 7 of 9 are in variation of circle. Symbolic of the sun or wheel of life and suggests eternity.
Square dances: symbol of man and woman as complementary opposites.
Diamond or lozenge: symbol of rebirth.
V Shape: represents bull's horns
Triangle: sacred symbol of the Earth Mother goddess"


define and describe the three coordinates of dance:

1. physical: is associated with ballet’s attempt to defy gravity. “weight vs weightlessness”

2. psychological: is about the expression which comes from the core, or solar plexus. associated with modern dance.

3. social: goes beyond dancer's body and establishes relationships between 2 or more bodies moving in a space. tension involves dynamics of attraction and repulsion. seen in pas de deux.


the three aspects of ballet:

1. alignment: strict posture. describes the strict verticality of ballet.

2. extension: the dancer's limbs are trained to create the longest, most lyrical line possible. accentuates the vertical line of the body.

3. turnout: the rotation of the legs from the hips. ability to rotate the leg from the hip (not knee) socket. 180 degree angle of turnout.



simplest and enduring forms of poetry.
It retains the folk-song patterns of its origins -- four lines of iambic verse alternating tetrameter/trimeter pattern.

Many hymns follow this alternating tetrameter/trimeter pattern of the ballad.



A longer and more elevated form of poetry. an extended lyrical verse dealing with one central theme.
-strophe: chorus moved up one side of stage
-antistrophe: moved down the other side of stage
-epode: chanted while standing in place.



most rigorous poetic forms.
strict metrical pattern consisting of fourteen lines, arranged in a particular rhyme scheme.
traditionally 2 types:
-Italian (petrarchan) 2 rhyming groups, an octave and sestet.
-The English (shakespearean sonnet) divided into 4 sections, 3 quatrains, and a couplet.


free verse

most common nontraditional form. changing the way it is portrayed on the paper. technology helps.


Familiarize yourself with imagery: direct associations to the senses—

seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and body movement.


describe the Four Ways of Looking at a Poem:

-literal: interested in the subject matter. title tips us off.
-allegorical: translates abstract notions into pictures. deeper meanings.teaching by analogy.
-moral: makes value judgements about the events. focuses on the experience in the poem.
-Anagogical or spiritual: how the poem centers around the veiled allusions to Christ.


Early Silent Films: Sergei Eisenstein (Battleship Potemkin)

Sergei Eisenstein: a supporter of the new socialist regime in Russia, made Battleship Potemkin to focus on events that led to the Russian Revolution of 1917 that deposed the tsar.
In his montages of collisions, Eisenstein hoped to direct the audience’s reactions, so that when they saw a shot of an innocent and orphaned baby, followed by a shot of a marching line of ruthless soldiers, they would feel animosity toward the soldiers and pity for the victims of the city of Odessa (including the baby). Eisenstein leaves no room for viewers to decide for themselves—he directs their emotional responses.


Auteur theory suggests that..

Those who advocate for auteur films esteem films that showcase the individual styles of their directors.


three things to look for in folk dance

1. Rhythm: how well the dancers express with their bodies the basic rhythmic patter of the folk music

2. Styling: dancer's appearance and subtler sense of nationality behind each dance.

3.Body Control: physical stamina and concentration


personal essay as a personal opinion

-an opinion that is based on a particular political or social concern or topic of interest.
-states the problem, provides solutions, and then writes a conclusion—which must state an important point.
-frequently seeks to explain the truth or reality as he or she views it.
-must not lecture, sermonize, or moralize. present the opinion in such a way that the readers are allowed to decide for themselves.
-a conversation with your readers.
-an informed mixture of storytelling, facts, wisdom, and personality.
-examines a subject outside of yourself, but through the lens of self.
-strives to say what is evident and to come to a conclusion that the reader may agree or disagree with.
-A personal essay can wander through its subject, circle around it, get the long view and the short, always providing experience, knowledge, book learning, and personal history.


personal essay as a personal narrative

-It is based on a personal experience
-includes dialogue, imagery, characterization, conflict, and plot.
-written in the first person
-It is an autobiographical story of an incident that resulted in some personal growth or development.
-A personal essay is a glimpse of the writer’s life. must have a theme.
- does not have to be objective. must express his or her feelings, thoughts, and emotions.
-uses self-disclosure and is honest.
-a real-life experience. must use facts and truth.
-must dramatize the story by using the scene-building technique.