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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (267):
1

Unequal access to the culturally valued resourced of wealth, power and prestige.

social inequality

2

how are people distinguished from each other? (3)

wealth, power, prestige

3

the material objects that have value in a society

wealth

4

the ability to achieve ones goals by influencing the behaviours of others

power

5

social honour or respect within a society

prestige

6

where do inequalities exist?(6)

gender, race/ethnicity, age, class, religion, kinship

7

3 levels of social inequality

egalitarian society, rank society, stratified society

8

a society that recognizes few differences in status, wealth, or power

egalitarian society

9

Example of egalitarian society

foragers with few possessions, no land ownership, little specialization
- division of labour based on gender and age

10

what does egalitarian societies lack?

a clear organizational structure

11

those with special skills are not held superior, leaders have influence but no authority, norms emphasize sharing and ideals of interpersonal equality: are all examples of what society?

egalitarian

12

a society in which people have unequal access to prestige and status but not unequal access to wealth and power

Ranked Society

13

Small-scale foraging societies, such as Ju/'hoansi of Namibia are what society?

egalitarian

14

common I horticulture societies where surplus gives rise to resources and privileges :what society?

Ranked

15

People divide into hierarchically ordered groups (clans) that differs in terms of prestige and status (not significantly in terms of access to resources (wealth)or power: what society?

ranked

16

possible to identify persons with the label of chiefs or "big men" whose inherited position has prestige; what society?

ranked

17

can individuals achieve power and prestige in the ranked societies?

yes

18

a society with a large population that is divided into several levels based on the degree of social inequality

stratified society

19

marked inequalities in access to wealth, power, and prestige; what society?

stratified

20

found almost exclusively within complex societies with centralized political systems, large populations; what society?

stratified

21

control of wealth and power in the hands of a few; what society?

stratified

22

status and rewards are inheritable and social mobility is limited; what society?

stratified

23

what are the layers within a stratified society called?

strata

24

relatively permanent levels in society seperating people according to their access to wealth, power and prestige

strata

25

stratification systems vary in what 5 points?

1. the # of ranked groups
2. the degree to which there is agreement regarding their hierarchical placement
3. the size of the strata
4. the ability of individuals to move within the strata
5. supporting ideology (eg. class or caste)

26

the ability of people to change their social position within the society

social mobility

27

the status an individual acquires during the course of her or his lifetime

achieved status (class)

28

the status a person has by virtue of birth

ascribed status (caste)

29

plato proposed what 2 classes?

rich and poor

30

Aristotle proposed what 3 classes?

upper lass, servile lower class and a worthy middle class

31

those who own the land and machinery (capital)

bourgeoisie

32

those who sell their labour for wages (working class)

proletariat

33

the proletariat became aware of the exploitation and rose up in revolution

class consciousness

34

what does class conflicts do

advance society to become classless and egalitarian: utopia= all would be proletarian

35

what are Webers 3 dimensions of stratification?

1. stratification is not solely economic
2. suggested that class results from interplay of three other significant factors: property (class), prestige (status) and power (party)
3. weber defined class as a group of people with similar "life changes"

36

what are the Classes in Canada? (7)

Upper-upper class, lower- upper class, upper-middle, middle-middle, lower-middle, working-class, lower class

37

1% "old money" established families

upper-upper class

38

2-4% nouveau riche, .com millionaires

lower-upper

39

40-50% of population

middle class

40

upper managerial or professional fields ($100k+)

upper-middle

41

$50-100K

middle middle class

42

middle management, white-collar and highly skilled blue-collar (

lower-middle class

43

1/3 population, no accumulated wealth, less personal satisfaction jobs, fewer opportunities, less social mobility

working class

44

20% of population

lower class

45

social assistance and working poor, poverty cycle, seasonal, part-time workers, minimum wage earners

lower class

46

how are social classes manifested? (9)

1.verbal eveluation
2.patterns of associations
3. language
4. symbolic indicators
5. wealth
6. dress
7. forms of recreation
8. residential location
9.material possessions

47

an example of patterns of association

unlikely a janitor is to associate with a CEO

48

an example of class distinction in Greece?

greeks used footwear as a symbol of wealth and status, slave snot allowed to wear shoes

49

what did king Henry VIII, introduced to regulate and distinguish ranks of societies?

regulated to people to dress in detailed colour, style and fabric to signal their rank in society

50

1984: pierre Bourdieu "cultural capital" the cultural assets of class are (5)

1. speech etiquette
2. dress
3. body language
4. information
5. taste (wine, cigars)

51

lower Class focuse don what

concrete necessities of life

52

high class focused on

art, literate and intellectual leisure actives

53

social reproduction

classes tend to reproduce themselves culturally

54

unlike many countries, Canada can enable a high degree of ___________- up and down

economic mobility

55

the condition in a given society which people lack income required to access the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, shelter, to achieve a minimum level of physical well-being

absolute poverty

56

the condition in a given society which people lack the minimum income required to obtain the society's normal standard of living

relative poverty

57

the threshold of income below which the basic necessities of life cannot be met, or which is deemed adequate in a given country

poverty line

58

a situation in which an individual or family lack permanent, stable housing

homelessness

59

what are some factor that lead to homelessness?

- those who spend 50% or more of their monthly income rent
- first nations, LGBTQ+ members, minorities

60

cultural items that conveys a persons status

status symbol

61

what was en example of a status symbolic the 16th and 17th cent.?

sugar

62

a stratification system where cultural or racial differences are used as the basis for ascribing status

caste

63

castes are ranked by ______ and _______ customs

purity and pollution

64

the original Sanskrit for the caste system was ______ which means _________

varna, colour

65

4 varnas ranked from importance, prestige, and purity

1. Brahmin
2. Kshatriya
3. Vaishya
4. Sudra
5. Untouchable

66

(priests) scholars, philosophers - rewarded with honour

brahmin

67

(warriors) rulers administrators and organizers- rewarded with power

Kshatriya

68

(the people) merchants, farmers, traders, artisans, engineers - rewarded with wealth

vaishya

69

(servants) unskilled labourers, factory workers, manual labourers- rewarded with freedom from responsibility

sundra

70

in india, musicians are?

harijans

71

Why are Dalits called untouchables?

they are forbidden to physically contact anyone who belongs to one of the 4 Varnas

72

practices such as segregation and denial of access to community resources, which separate Dalits from other caste groups

untouchability practices

73

what is the reason Hindus believe untouchables are born into this class?

bad karma he/she earned in a previous life

74

examples of Dalit jobs:

street cleaners, letter workers,

75

the practice of marrying someone from a higher social strata

hypergamy

76

why did India outlaw caste in 1950?

seen as an obstacle to progress

77

what has weekend the specific association between caste and occupation?

the large number of caste-free occupations: government, business, factories, schools. colleges, services

78

what is the European parallel to Dalit's?

Roma

79

observable physical characteristics

phenotype

80

a rule, and in many U.S. states a law, that if a person had one ancestor who as black, typically one great-great-great-great grandparent, then they are considered black too

one-drop rule

81

the assignment of a child from a mixed race, ethnic group, or other social group to the inferior or lower status group

hypodescent

82

the linguistic and cultural characteristics and heritage that a person identifies with

ethnicity

83

a group of people who share many of the same cultural features and heritage

ethnic groups

84

a society consisting of people from different ethnic, religious, and racial backgrounds

multicultural societies

85

a type of discrimination whereby people are treated differently based on the race they are deemed to belong to

racism

86

where ether institution and systems of society are structured such that the subordinate group is disadvantaged or discriminated against

structural racism

87

in 1700 what were the 4 classified human sub-groups

europeans, asians, indians, africans

88

what did sue Morton discover when measuring skulls and what didi it fuel

found that africans had the smallest brain capacity, while europeans had the highest. fulled a eugenics movement

89

the practice of treating individuals differently simply based on the group (eg. gender, age, sex, gender groups) they belong to

discrimination

90

treating members of the dominant group differently in an effort to remedy previous discrimination against members of a subordinate group

reverse discrimination

91

the systematic and forced removal of an ethnic or religious group from a given geographic area in order to make it religiously and/or ethnically homogenous

ethnic cleansing

92

the systematic murder of an entire group of people

genocide

93

what was the intent of residential schools?

remove "the Indian" from the cold, and replace it with the values and ideologies of the monist European- Canadian christian society

94

the activities associated with the governance of a county or area, especially the debate between parties having power

politics

95

what is political control critical for?

the growth, harmony and perpetuation of a society

96

examples of large societies formal mechanisms for control

judges, armies, bureaucracies, elections

97

the ways in which power is distributed within a society to control peoples behaviour and maintain social order

political organizations

98

the ability to improve or excerice one's will on another, causing them to act or otherwise behave in ways that they usual would not

power

99

the socially-approved use of power

authority

100

the ability to affect the behaviour of others without coercion, and without holding an explicit leadership status or office

influence

101

ways of speaking which are commonly practised and specifically situated in a social environment

discourse

102

conduct research with a practical outcome in mind, often based in assisting with a social problem or history in mind

applied field anthropology

103

research designed to solve a particular social problem rather than test an anthropological theory

problem-oriented research

104

what is the most practiced type of research

problem oriented research

105

what is a risk of anthropology

spending its of time with individuals and developing relationships which make it difficult to ignore social problems participants face

106

the way anthropologists look at and undertones people and cultures

anthropological perspective

107

what are 7 reasons anthropology is useful?

holistic, relative, naturalistic, comparative, global, bio-cultural, reflexivity

108

seeks te larger picture and tries to understand how connections among people are made and sustained

holistic

109

seeing general patterns that are observable from one society to another

comparative

110

the application of anthropological concepts and methods to help businesses and other organizations solve problems

business anthropology

111

focused on international development and aid strategies

development anthropology

112

concerned with the relationships between humans and their environment, goal is to assist with solving human-environment problems and promote sustainable communities

environmental anthropology

113

the application of anthropological connects and methods to the study of educational institutes and processes

educational anthropology

114

anthropologists are well-positioned to advocate for those with access to ______, _____, and ____

power, prestige and representation

115

a system of believes and practices usually involving supernatural beings and forces that functions provide meaning, peach of mind, and a sense of control over unexplainable phenomena

religion

116

what are the 3 problems with "supernatural"

1. ethnocentrism
2. dichotomy
3. identifying the supernatural

117

what we consider as supernatural others may not

Ethnocentrism

118

not all societies make a supernatural/natural distinction

Dichotomy

119

many societies don't have a separate word for religion whats an example?

Kikuyu elders sacrifices a goat, and calls upon he ancestors to help bring rain

120

what are some major features of religion? (7)

beliefs in supernatural, moral code, group membership/, body of myth/legend, rituals, magic and witchcraft, means of explanation

121

what is EB Taylors definition of religion?

belief in spiritual beings = animism

122

what does anima mean

breath or soul

123

the idea that the world and everything in it is filled with souls or spirits

animism

124

a type of religious belief in which impersonal spiritual forces exist in the world and affect human behaviour

animatism

125

a means for dealing with crises, death and illness, gives meaning to life and afterlife, participation in religious ceremonies provides reassurance and even closeness - what kind of approach?

psychological approach

126

provides societal needs, sustains the moral and social order, provides notions of acceptable behaviour, group norms : what approach?

Sociological approach

127

sees religion as a set of symbols and stresses the meaning of those symbols as referents and creators of meaningful life: what approach?

interpretative approach

128

the manipulation of nature using supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims

magic

129

performing a magical ritual on something that has been in contact with someone to influence that person

contagious magic

130

performing a magical ritual on the likeliness of someone or event to influence the real person or event

imitative magic

131

whats an example of imitate magic?

voodoo doll

132

the practice of foreseeing future events or acquiring hidden knowledge through super natural means

divination

133

ex of divination

palm reading, fortune cookie ,magic ball

134

the inherent power to harm other persons by supernatural means

witchcraft

135

the performance of certain magical rites for the purpose of harming other people

sorcery

136

what the different of witchcraft and sorcery?

sorcery involves using material substances and incantations to cause harm to people, witchcraft is the inherent power of people to cause misfortune or death by supernatural means

137

what are the 4 types (cults) of religious organization?

individualistic, shamaistic, communal, ecclesiastical

138

the least complex type of religious organizations which each person is his or her own religious specialist

individualistic cults

139

religious organization in which part-time religious specialists called shamans intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients

Shamanistic Cults

140

what are shamans thought to have access to?

the supernatural world

141

religious organization in which groups of ordinary people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community

communal cults

142

what are 2 categories of communal cults?

rites of passage and rites of solidarity

143

highly complex religious organization in which full-time clergy are employed and example

ecclesiastical cults ex. catholic baptismal ceremony

144

a ritual that celebrates the transition of a person from one social status to another

rites of passage

145

examples of rites of passage

marriage, funerals, baptism

146

what are the 4 phases of rites of passage?

1. seperation
2. Purification rites
3. Transition
4. Incorporation

147

2. Purificational rites

rituals symbolize cutting or separating ex. removal of hair

148

3. Transition- liminal

person symbolically placed "outside" society, normal rules of society suspended

149

4. Incorporation- postliminal

symbolically reborn, completes transition to a new status

150

a ritual that celebrates the transition of a person from one social status to another

rite of passage

151

a stereotyped sequence of civets involving gestures, words, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and designed to influence preternatural (magical) entities or forces on behalf of the actors goals or interest

ritual

152

what is a ritual for Hindu pilgrims?

cleansing their souls by bathing in the holy Ganges

153

what are the 8 characteristics of rituals

1. by definition religious- involve magic
2. Highly structured patterns of behaviour
3. Belief in action
4. out of the ordinary actions
5. performed in a sequestered place
6. provide a sense of solidarity
7. serve function for the people concerned
8. Symbolic

154

3 types of rituals

Calendrical rites, rites of transition or passage, critical or life crisis rites

155

Concerned with the natural world, seasonal

calendrical rites

156

concerned with social world, changes in. the individual's status, role or position

rites of transition or passage

157

curing and magic, concerned with the individual

critical or life-crisis rites

158

what are 4 tasks of a priest, shaman or oracle?

1. healing 2. leading rituals 3. communication with spirits 4. performing magic

159

a religious movement designed to bring about a new way of life within a society

revitalization movement

160

what are 2 ex. of a revitalization movement?

ghost dance and cargo cults

161

what was the Ghost dance

political movement, aimed at elimination of the us government, practiced among plains first nations

162

a Melanesian revitalization movement characterized by rituals intended to bring material goods, that is, cargo

Cargo cult

163

what was the rational behind cargo cults?

during the world WWII tribes thought the planes flying over head bringing food and items to soldiers were sent from gods, and they just had to build an "airport" to intrigue the plane to land so they would get the food on the plane

164

the blending of religions

syncretism

165

what religions are experiencing geographic shifts do to globalization?

Christianity

166

a trend toward merging traditional religious principles with the workings of government

religious nationalism

167

what % of people in Canada are NOT religious, and what is the major religion in

25% and Catholicism

168

a religious movement characterized by a return and strict adherence to the fundamental principles of the religion, and often involving a liberal interpretation of religious texts, as well intolerance of other faiths

religious fundamentalism

169

a trend toward merging traditional religious principles with the workings of government

religious nationalism

170

why is art a great interest to anthropologists?

tells much about a society's capacity for creativity, storytelling, empathy, vision

171

the process and the product of applying certain skills to transform matter, sound, or motion into a form that is deemed aesthetically meaningful to people in a society

art

172

Andersons def of art

meaning is not required, no sense of aesthetics, context is required only in sense of skilfulness

173

an example of intentional art

if building a boat to ride, it is insufficient if it sinks. but if intended for a work of art, doesn't matter if it floats

174

objects whose primary intention wasn't to be a work of art but which are considered to be art objects ex

totem pols, bowls, buffalo masks

175

what are 5 attributes of art objects?

1. skill in manufacture
2. emotional features
3. aesthetic features
4 semantic or interpretative features
5. interrelation

176

rare, expensive, made for the market, uniqueness valued, not utilitarian (art for arts sake) are examples of what type of art?

fine art

177

what was early art produced for?

religious or functional purpose

178

what was early art imbued with?

in harmony with nature, emotion, allied with basic drives:sex and fertility

179

what work is a category of art which is often categorized, to distance non-western peoples (anonymous)

primitive

180

3 perspectives on art

1. functional
2. iconographic (meaning)
3. Aesthetic

181

form vs function of art example

a mask: function to obscure a persons face. but also serves to create a new identify or transform in the form of spirit possession

182

ex of representatiional or iconic systems

totem pole: looks like a raven to some to some it represents a social group

183

what were tatoos used for

to show social position, rank, sex, occupation, local or ethnic identity or religion within a society

184

5 functions of art

1. psychological
2. Political
3. Religious
4. Social
5. Educational

185

what was art also used for

propoganda

186

the study of the relationship between music and other aspects of culture

ethnomusicology

187

what ar ether 4 major interests of ethnomusicology?

1. what sorts of ideas does a culture have about music
2. how I music socially structured
3. what are the characteristics of the music itself
4. what are the material cultures of said music

188

how can Austrian art be interpreted?

their symbols have meanings associated with places, social groups and ancestral tracks that can be read by anyone of they know the key

189

____________ art involves not only how something looks and is appreciated, but also how it is understood

aesthetic

190

Yolngu art the shimmering is interpreted as what? and they also reinforce it with what

as the power of the ancestral beings shining out from the painting .
Reinforced with songs

191

the process of foraging international, political, economic, religious, and socio-culture interconnections and interdependancies

globalization

192

things that cross international boarders?

money, cars, people, calling/emails, culture, food, ideas

193

what was the first item that factored economic globalization?

Obsidian: a black volcanic glass used for tools and weapons

194

a series of trade routes connections China, Asia Minor and the mediterranean

silk road

195

theory to increase export to strengthen national wealth

mercantilism

196

no alternative way of life to be imagined; social reproduction of a "cage"

iron cage

197

an example of an iron cage job

factory worker

198

European colonies where local economic resources were expropriated, and the indigenous peoples used as cheap sources of labour

colonies of exploitation

199

European colonies where large numbers of settlers displaced indigenous groups to become the majority population, thus marginalizing the indigenous peoples

settlement colonies

200

what are 2 theories why the world is unequal?

modernization theory and world systems theory

201

differences in economic development may be explained by inherent socio-cultural differences between the rich and poor

modernization theory

202

what is the modernization theory used for

as a model for planning strategy in developing nations

203

nations of the world are connected in a systematic political and economic network of exchange whereby the wealthy nations exploit the poorer ones

world systems theory

204

what are the 3 areas of world systems theory?

core, periphery, semi-periphery

205

wealthy, technologically advanced, developed countries such as ? (4)

Core: US, UK CAN, GER

206

poor, Developing nations that provide raw materials, and cheap unskilled labour such as?

Periphery:sub-saharan Africa

207

industrializing nations that link the other two, that export the god

Semi-periphery: China, Indonesia, Mexico

208

critiques of modernization theory?

theorists see the loss of culture is a small price to pay for the benefits of modernizing

209

critiques of world systems theory?

assumes that the 3 spheres are eternally at balance with each other

210

the dismantling of Colonia emires by the withdrawal of colonial powers from their colonies, and the acquisition of self-determination and government in the newly independent states

decolonozation

211

why decolonize?

colonies to costly to maintain

212

the idea that developed countries and post-colonial powers maintain political and economic dependency and exploitation of former colonies and less developed countried

neocolonialism

213

3 primary agents responsible for neocolonialism?

- developed countries & former colonialists
- international financial organizations
- multinational corporations

214

taking, adopting and using the elements of one culture by members of another

cultural appropriation

215

what has helped the global trade grow?

improved technology, marketing/mass media, cheap travel, flexible immigration policies

216

poverty, child labour, wages fall under what type of issues

global issues

217

pros of globalization (3)

higher degrees of freedom, improved gender relationships, increased lifespan, job opportunities

218

cons of globalization

environment damage, religious tensions (wars/terrorism), loosing jobs from abroad workers, results in sweatshop workers

219

a person who move from one nation to another

migrant

220

fleeing a home country, and seeking refuge due to war, violence, or threat to life- can include political, social, religious, gender, and ethnicity components

refugee

221

the dispersion of a group of people from their original homeland

diaspora

222

a public policy philosophy that recognizes the legitimacy and equity of all cultures represented in a society

multiculturalism

223

according to weber, what are 3 principal ways in which rule could be rendered legitimate, or rightful, I noted eyes of the governed

1. traditional authority
2. rational-legal authority
3.charasmatic authority

224

rule is accepted by followers because it is believed to be the correct moral order
-members selected for office on the basis of loyalty, not job ability

traditional authority

225

authority established thru rational legal means with 2 key features 1. the system of rule created by laws that have popular support 2. leaders are selected and advanced on the basis of their ability to get the job done

rational-legal

226

some leaders manage to obtain authority over a set of followers by opposing tradition and while operating outside the prevailing system of rule

charismatic authority

227

how is order maintained within.a society?

ideological (internal). behavioural (external), sanctions

228

culturally instilled values (guilt, shame, obligations), expectation of supernatural harm or reward

internal (ideological)

229

informal (gossip, praise), formal (laws, rules), conflict mediators (oracles, oaths), negotiations,

behavioural (external )

230

to refer to an arbiter to settle a dispute between 2 parties after hearing the argument of both

arbitration

231

to make an official decision about who is right in a dispute

adjudication

232

positive and negative ______ encourage or discourage behaviours

sanctions

233

the use, or threatened use of physical force to gain compliance and an example

coercion ex torture

234

how do people Come into compliance

coercion, remuneration (bribes), persuasion

235

rarely more than 30-40 people, kin based, flexible extended family unit, no formal political organization

bands

236

in bands: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?

informal leaders/ adults
ridicule and ostracism
negotiation? mediation

237

multiple autonomous small communities that share common identity, usually pastoralists or horticulture, severe hundred/thousand people

tribes

238

in tribes: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?

consensus among descent groups
ridicule and ostracism
negotiation/mediation

239

in a tribe, wha does the "big man" do

similar to a village head, but influenced over more than one village

240

social groupings that form outside of the usual categories of family or kinship

sodalities

241

sodalities may be based around ____ and _____

age and gender

242

agriculture, multiple communities share common identity, thousands of people,organization based on hierarchical lineage system

chiefdoms

243

in chiefdoms: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?

chiefs
social sanction, use of force
negotiation

244

as leaders, they own, manage and control basic factors of the economy

chiefs

245

chiefs have special access to what 4 things

crops, labour, cash, goods

246

multiple cities that share tax and admin infrastructure system, tens of thousands of billions of people, centralized political organization possessing coercive power

states

247

in states: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?

rulers on behalf of populous
official enforcement
negotiation/ centralized arbitration

248

a socio-cultural entity as well as a political community that has legitimacy over a defined territory

nation-state

249

type of states (3)

totalitarian, autocratic, democratic

250

one in which the state has non limit to its power/authority, strives to regulate all aspects of public and private life

totalitarian

251

governed by a leader with absolute and complete power. leadership lasts long periods, change brought on by violent means

autocratic

252

predicated on responding to the will of the people - supreme power is vested in the populace

democracy

253

power rests with the citizens, who periodically elect members of there society to some form of assembly to represent them in decision making

representative democracy

254

a form of nation-state in which the power rests with a single individual or family within which power is inherited ex

monarchy ex queen

255

on individual holds absolute power to make laws (brutally repressive)

dictatorship

256

a nation-state in which ultimate power rests with a city or god

theocracy

257

why is the internet considered a double edged sword

it can do good and bad to people

258

mechanisms of social control for enforcing a society's norms through rewards

positive sanction

259

punishments for violating the norms of a society

negative sanction

260

mechanisms found in all societies that function to encourage people to maintain social norms

social control

261

wha the general public thinks about an issue, which, when brought to bear on an individual, can influence his or her behaviour

public opinion

262

doing what is right in the context of a legal system

justice

263

codified ruled enforced through the legitimate use of physical coercion

law

264

a system of. justice that focuses on revenge and punishment of the wrongdoer

retributive justice

265

a system of justice that focuses on resolving conflict, healing, and restoring harmonious relationships.

restorative justice

266

institutionalized armed conflict between nation-states and other politically distinct groups

warfare

267

4 basic factors that contribute to warfare

1. social problems
2. perceived threats
3. political motivations
4. moral objectives