Flashcards in FINAL Deck (267):
Unequal access to the culturally valued resourced of wealth, power and prestige.
how are people distinguished from each other? (3)
wealth, power, prestige
the material objects that have value in a society
the ability to achieve ones goals by influencing the behaviours of others
social honour or respect within a society
where do inequalities exist?(6)
gender, race/ethnicity, age, class, religion, kinship
3 levels of social inequality
egalitarian society, rank society, stratified society
a society that recognizes few differences in status, wealth, or power
Example of egalitarian society
foragers with few possessions, no land ownership, little specialization
- division of labour based on gender and age
what does egalitarian societies lack?
a clear organizational structure
those with special skills are not held superior, leaders have influence but no authority, norms emphasize sharing and ideals of interpersonal equality: are all examples of what society?
a society in which people have unequal access to prestige and status but not unequal access to wealth and power
Small-scale foraging societies, such as Ju/'hoansi of Namibia are what society?
common I horticulture societies where surplus gives rise to resources and privileges :what society?
People divide into hierarchically ordered groups (clans) that differs in terms of prestige and status (not significantly in terms of access to resources (wealth)or power: what society?
possible to identify persons with the label of chiefs or "big men" whose inherited position has prestige; what society?
can individuals achieve power and prestige in the ranked societies?
a society with a large population that is divided into several levels based on the degree of social inequality
marked inequalities in access to wealth, power, and prestige; what society?
found almost exclusively within complex societies with centralized political systems, large populations; what society?
control of wealth and power in the hands of a few; what society?
status and rewards are inheritable and social mobility is limited; what society?
what are the layers within a stratified society called?
relatively permanent levels in society seperating people according to their access to wealth, power and prestige
stratification systems vary in what 5 points?
1. the # of ranked groups
2. the degree to which there is agreement regarding their hierarchical placement
3. the size of the strata
4. the ability of individuals to move within the strata
5. supporting ideology (eg. class or caste)
the ability of people to change their social position within the society
the status an individual acquires during the course of her or his lifetime
achieved status (class)
the status a person has by virtue of birth
ascribed status (caste)
plato proposed what 2 classes?
rich and poor
Aristotle proposed what 3 classes?
upper lass, servile lower class and a worthy middle class
those who own the land and machinery (capital)
those who sell their labour for wages (working class)
the proletariat became aware of the exploitation and rose up in revolution
what does class conflicts do
advance society to become classless and egalitarian: utopia= all would be proletarian
what are Webers 3 dimensions of stratification?
1. stratification is not solely economic
2. suggested that class results from interplay of three other significant factors: property (class), prestige (status) and power (party)
3. weber defined class as a group of people with similar "life changes"
what are the Classes in Canada? (7)
Upper-upper class, lower- upper class, upper-middle, middle-middle, lower-middle, working-class, lower class
1% "old money" established families
2-4% nouveau riche, .com millionaires
40-50% of population
upper managerial or professional fields ($100k+)
middle middle class
middle management, white-collar and highly skilled blue-collar (
1/3 population, no accumulated wealth, less personal satisfaction jobs, fewer opportunities, less social mobility
20% of population
social assistance and working poor, poverty cycle, seasonal, part-time workers, minimum wage earners
how are social classes manifested? (9)
2.patterns of associations
4. symbolic indicators
7. forms of recreation
8. residential location
an example of patterns of association
unlikely a janitor is to associate with a CEO
an example of class distinction in Greece?
greeks used footwear as a symbol of wealth and status, slave snot allowed to wear shoes
what did king Henry VIII, introduced to regulate and distinguish ranks of societies?
regulated to people to dress in detailed colour, style and fabric to signal their rank in society
1984: pierre Bourdieu "cultural capital" the cultural assets of class are (5)
1. speech etiquette
3. body language
5. taste (wine, cigars)
lower Class focuse don what
concrete necessities of life
high class focused on
art, literate and intellectual leisure actives
classes tend to reproduce themselves culturally
unlike many countries, Canada can enable a high degree of ___________- up and down
the condition in a given society which people lack income required to access the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, shelter, to achieve a minimum level of physical well-being
the condition in a given society which people lack the minimum income required to obtain the society's normal standard of living
the threshold of income below which the basic necessities of life cannot be met, or which is deemed adequate in a given country
a situation in which an individual or family lack permanent, stable housing
what are some factor that lead to homelessness?
- those who spend 50% or more of their monthly income rent
- first nations, LGBTQ+ members, minorities
cultural items that conveys a persons status
what was en example of a status symbolic the 16th and 17th cent.?
a stratification system where cultural or racial differences are used as the basis for ascribing status
castes are ranked by ______ and _______ customs
purity and pollution
the original Sanskrit for the caste system was ______ which means _________
4 varnas ranked from importance, prestige, and purity
(priests) scholars, philosophers - rewarded with honour
(warriors) rulers administrators and organizers- rewarded with power
(the people) merchants, farmers, traders, artisans, engineers - rewarded with wealth
(servants) unskilled labourers, factory workers, manual labourers- rewarded with freedom from responsibility
in india, musicians are?
Why are Dalits called untouchables?
they are forbidden to physically contact anyone who belongs to one of the 4 Varnas
practices such as segregation and denial of access to community resources, which separate Dalits from other caste groups
what is the reason Hindus believe untouchables are born into this class?
bad karma he/she earned in a previous life
examples of Dalit jobs:
street cleaners, letter workers,
the practice of marrying someone from a higher social strata
why did India outlaw caste in 1950?
seen as an obstacle to progress
what has weekend the specific association between caste and occupation?
the large number of caste-free occupations: government, business, factories, schools. colleges, services
what is the European parallel to Dalit's?
observable physical characteristics
a rule, and in many U.S. states a law, that if a person had one ancestor who as black, typically one great-great-great-great grandparent, then they are considered black too
the assignment of a child from a mixed race, ethnic group, or other social group to the inferior or lower status group
the linguistic and cultural characteristics and heritage that a person identifies with
a group of people who share many of the same cultural features and heritage
a society consisting of people from different ethnic, religious, and racial backgrounds
a type of discrimination whereby people are treated differently based on the race they are deemed to belong to
where ether institution and systems of society are structured such that the subordinate group is disadvantaged or discriminated against
in 1700 what were the 4 classified human sub-groups
europeans, asians, indians, africans
what did sue Morton discover when measuring skulls and what didi it fuel
found that africans had the smallest brain capacity, while europeans had the highest. fulled a eugenics movement
the practice of treating individuals differently simply based on the group (eg. gender, age, sex, gender groups) they belong to
treating members of the dominant group differently in an effort to remedy previous discrimination against members of a subordinate group
the systematic and forced removal of an ethnic or religious group from a given geographic area in order to make it religiously and/or ethnically homogenous
the systematic murder of an entire group of people
what was the intent of residential schools?
remove "the Indian" from the cold, and replace it with the values and ideologies of the monist European- Canadian christian society
the activities associated with the governance of a county or area, especially the debate between parties having power
what is political control critical for?
the growth, harmony and perpetuation of a society
examples of large societies formal mechanisms for control
judges, armies, bureaucracies, elections
the ways in which power is distributed within a society to control peoples behaviour and maintain social order
the ability to improve or excerice one's will on another, causing them to act or otherwise behave in ways that they usual would not
the socially-approved use of power
the ability to affect the behaviour of others without coercion, and without holding an explicit leadership status or office
ways of speaking which are commonly practised and specifically situated in a social environment
conduct research with a practical outcome in mind, often based in assisting with a social problem or history in mind
applied field anthropology
research designed to solve a particular social problem rather than test an anthropological theory
what is the most practiced type of research
problem oriented research
what is a risk of anthropology
spending its of time with individuals and developing relationships which make it difficult to ignore social problems participants face
the way anthropologists look at and undertones people and cultures
what are 7 reasons anthropology is useful?
holistic, relative, naturalistic, comparative, global, bio-cultural, reflexivity
seeks te larger picture and tries to understand how connections among people are made and sustained
seeing general patterns that are observable from one society to another
the application of anthropological concepts and methods to help businesses and other organizations solve problems
focused on international development and aid strategies
concerned with the relationships between humans and their environment, goal is to assist with solving human-environment problems and promote sustainable communities
the application of anthropological connects and methods to the study of educational institutes and processes
anthropologists are well-positioned to advocate for those with access to ______, _____, and ____
power, prestige and representation
a system of believes and practices usually involving supernatural beings and forces that functions provide meaning, peach of mind, and a sense of control over unexplainable phenomena
what are the 3 problems with "supernatural"
3. identifying the supernatural
what we consider as supernatural others may not
not all societies make a supernatural/natural distinction
many societies don't have a separate word for religion whats an example?
Kikuyu elders sacrifices a goat, and calls upon he ancestors to help bring rain
what are some major features of religion? (7)
beliefs in supernatural, moral code, group membership/, body of myth/legend, rituals, magic and witchcraft, means of explanation
what is EB Taylors definition of religion?
belief in spiritual beings = animism
what does anima mean
breath or soul
the idea that the world and everything in it is filled with souls or spirits
a type of religious belief in which impersonal spiritual forces exist in the world and affect human behaviour
a means for dealing with crises, death and illness, gives meaning to life and afterlife, participation in religious ceremonies provides reassurance and even closeness - what kind of approach?
provides societal needs, sustains the moral and social order, provides notions of acceptable behaviour, group norms : what approach?
sees religion as a set of symbols and stresses the meaning of those symbols as referents and creators of meaningful life: what approach?
the manipulation of nature using supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
performing a magical ritual on something that has been in contact with someone to influence that person
performing a magical ritual on the likeliness of someone or event to influence the real person or event
whats an example of imitate magic?
the practice of foreseeing future events or acquiring hidden knowledge through super natural means
ex of divination
palm reading, fortune cookie ,magic ball
the inherent power to harm other persons by supernatural means
the performance of certain magical rites for the purpose of harming other people
what the different of witchcraft and sorcery?
sorcery involves using material substances and incantations to cause harm to people, witchcraft is the inherent power of people to cause misfortune or death by supernatural means
what are the 4 types (cults) of religious organization?
individualistic, shamaistic, communal, ecclesiastical
the least complex type of religious organizations which each person is his or her own religious specialist
religious organization in which part-time religious specialists called shamans intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients
what are shamans thought to have access to?
the supernatural world
religious organization in which groups of ordinary people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community
what are 2 categories of communal cults?
rites of passage and rites of solidarity
highly complex religious organization in which full-time clergy are employed and example
ecclesiastical cults ex. catholic baptismal ceremony
a ritual that celebrates the transition of a person from one social status to another
rites of passage
examples of rites of passage
marriage, funerals, baptism
what are the 4 phases of rites of passage?
2. Purification rites
2. Purificational rites
rituals symbolize cutting or separating ex. removal of hair
3. Transition- liminal
person symbolically placed "outside" society, normal rules of society suspended
4. Incorporation- postliminal
symbolically reborn, completes transition to a new status
a ritual that celebrates the transition of a person from one social status to another
rite of passage
a stereotyped sequence of civets involving gestures, words, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and designed to influence preternatural (magical) entities or forces on behalf of the actors goals or interest
what is a ritual for Hindu pilgrims?
cleansing their souls by bathing in the holy Ganges
what are the 8 characteristics of rituals
1. by definition religious- involve magic
2. Highly structured patterns of behaviour
3. Belief in action
4. out of the ordinary actions
5. performed in a sequestered place
6. provide a sense of solidarity
7. serve function for the people concerned
3 types of rituals
Calendrical rites, rites of transition or passage, critical or life crisis rites
Concerned with the natural world, seasonal
concerned with social world, changes in. the individual's status, role or position
rites of transition or passage
curing and magic, concerned with the individual
critical or life-crisis rites
what are 4 tasks of a priest, shaman or oracle?
1. healing 2. leading rituals 3. communication with spirits 4. performing magic
a religious movement designed to bring about a new way of life within a society
what are 2 ex. of a revitalization movement?
ghost dance and cargo cults
what was the Ghost dance
political movement, aimed at elimination of the us government, practiced among plains first nations
a Melanesian revitalization movement characterized by rituals intended to bring material goods, that is, cargo
what was the rational behind cargo cults?
during the world WWII tribes thought the planes flying over head bringing food and items to soldiers were sent from gods, and they just had to build an "airport" to intrigue the plane to land so they would get the food on the plane
the blending of religions
what religions are experiencing geographic shifts do to globalization?
a trend toward merging traditional religious principles with the workings of government
what % of people in Canada are NOT religious, and what is the major religion in
25% and Catholicism
a religious movement characterized by a return and strict adherence to the fundamental principles of the religion, and often involving a liberal interpretation of religious texts, as well intolerance of other faiths
a trend toward merging traditional religious principles with the workings of government
why is art a great interest to anthropologists?
tells much about a society's capacity for creativity, storytelling, empathy, vision
the process and the product of applying certain skills to transform matter, sound, or motion into a form that is deemed aesthetically meaningful to people in a society
Andersons def of art
meaning is not required, no sense of aesthetics, context is required only in sense of skilfulness
an example of intentional art
if building a boat to ride, it is insufficient if it sinks. but if intended for a work of art, doesn't matter if it floats
objects whose primary intention wasn't to be a work of art but which are considered to be art objects ex
totem pols, bowls, buffalo masks
what are 5 attributes of art objects?
1. skill in manufacture
2. emotional features
3. aesthetic features
4 semantic or interpretative features
rare, expensive, made for the market, uniqueness valued, not utilitarian (art for arts sake) are examples of what type of art?
what was early art produced for?
religious or functional purpose
what was early art imbued with?
in harmony with nature, emotion, allied with basic drives:sex and fertility
what work is a category of art which is often categorized, to distance non-western peoples (anonymous)
3 perspectives on art
2. iconographic (meaning)
form vs function of art example
a mask: function to obscure a persons face. but also serves to create a new identify or transform in the form of spirit possession
ex of representatiional or iconic systems
totem pole: looks like a raven to some to some it represents a social group
what were tatoos used for
to show social position, rank, sex, occupation, local or ethnic identity or religion within a society
5 functions of art
what was art also used for
the study of the relationship between music and other aspects of culture
what ar ether 4 major interests of ethnomusicology?
1. what sorts of ideas does a culture have about music
2. how I music socially structured
3. what are the characteristics of the music itself
4. what are the material cultures of said music
how can Austrian art be interpreted?
their symbols have meanings associated with places, social groups and ancestral tracks that can be read by anyone of they know the key
____________ art involves not only how something looks and is appreciated, but also how it is understood
Yolngu art the shimmering is interpreted as what? and they also reinforce it with what
as the power of the ancestral beings shining out from the painting .
Reinforced with songs
the process of foraging international, political, economic, religious, and socio-culture interconnections and interdependancies
things that cross international boarders?
money, cars, people, calling/emails, culture, food, ideas
what was the first item that factored economic globalization?
Obsidian: a black volcanic glass used for tools and weapons
a series of trade routes connections China, Asia Minor and the mediterranean
theory to increase export to strengthen national wealth
no alternative way of life to be imagined; social reproduction of a "cage"
an example of an iron cage job
European colonies where local economic resources were expropriated, and the indigenous peoples used as cheap sources of labour
colonies of exploitation
European colonies where large numbers of settlers displaced indigenous groups to become the majority population, thus marginalizing the indigenous peoples
what are 2 theories why the world is unequal?
modernization theory and world systems theory
differences in economic development may be explained by inherent socio-cultural differences between the rich and poor
what is the modernization theory used for
as a model for planning strategy in developing nations
nations of the world are connected in a systematic political and economic network of exchange whereby the wealthy nations exploit the poorer ones
world systems theory
what are the 3 areas of world systems theory?
core, periphery, semi-periphery
wealthy, technologically advanced, developed countries such as ? (4)
Core: US, UK CAN, GER
poor, Developing nations that provide raw materials, and cheap unskilled labour such as?
industrializing nations that link the other two, that export the god
Semi-periphery: China, Indonesia, Mexico
critiques of modernization theory?
theorists see the loss of culture is a small price to pay for the benefits of modernizing
critiques of world systems theory?
assumes that the 3 spheres are eternally at balance with each other
the dismantling of Colonia emires by the withdrawal of colonial powers from their colonies, and the acquisition of self-determination and government in the newly independent states
colonies to costly to maintain
the idea that developed countries and post-colonial powers maintain political and economic dependency and exploitation of former colonies and less developed countried
3 primary agents responsible for neocolonialism?
- developed countries & former colonialists
- international financial organizations
- multinational corporations
taking, adopting and using the elements of one culture by members of another
what has helped the global trade grow?
improved technology, marketing/mass media, cheap travel, flexible immigration policies
poverty, child labour, wages fall under what type of issues
pros of globalization (3)
higher degrees of freedom, improved gender relationships, increased lifespan, job opportunities
cons of globalization
environment damage, religious tensions (wars/terrorism), loosing jobs from abroad workers, results in sweatshop workers
a person who move from one nation to another
fleeing a home country, and seeking refuge due to war, violence, or threat to life- can include political, social, religious, gender, and ethnicity components
the dispersion of a group of people from their original homeland
a public policy philosophy that recognizes the legitimacy and equity of all cultures represented in a society
according to weber, what are 3 principal ways in which rule could be rendered legitimate, or rightful, I noted eyes of the governed
1. traditional authority
2. rational-legal authority
rule is accepted by followers because it is believed to be the correct moral order
-members selected for office on the basis of loyalty, not job ability
authority established thru rational legal means with 2 key features 1. the system of rule created by laws that have popular support 2. leaders are selected and advanced on the basis of their ability to get the job done
some leaders manage to obtain authority over a set of followers by opposing tradition and while operating outside the prevailing system of rule
how is order maintained within.a society?
ideological (internal). behavioural (external), sanctions
culturally instilled values (guilt, shame, obligations), expectation of supernatural harm or reward
informal (gossip, praise), formal (laws, rules), conflict mediators (oracles, oaths), negotiations,
behavioural (external )
to refer to an arbiter to settle a dispute between 2 parties after hearing the argument of both
to make an official decision about who is right in a dispute
positive and negative ______ encourage or discourage behaviours
the use, or threatened use of physical force to gain compliance and an example
coercion ex torture
how do people Come into compliance
coercion, remuneration (bribes), persuasion
rarely more than 30-40 people, kin based, flexible extended family unit, no formal political organization
in bands: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?
informal leaders/ adults
ridicule and ostracism
multiple autonomous small communities that share common identity, usually pastoralists or horticulture, severe hundred/thousand people
in tribes: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?
consensus among descent groups
ridicule and ostracism
in a tribe, wha does the "big man" do
similar to a village head, but influenced over more than one village
social groupings that form outside of the usual categories of family or kinship
sodalities may be based around ____ and _____
age and gender
agriculture, multiple communities share common identity, thousands of people,organization based on hierarchical lineage system
in chiefdoms: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?
social sanction, use of force
as leaders, they own, manage and control basic factors of the economy
chiefs have special access to what 4 things
crops, labour, cash, goods
multiple cities that share tax and admin infrastructure system, tens of thousands of billions of people, centralized political organization possessing coercive power
in states: who makes decisions? how is social order inforced? how are conflicts dealt?
rulers on behalf of populous
negotiation/ centralized arbitration
a socio-cultural entity as well as a political community that has legitimacy over a defined territory
type of states (3)
totalitarian, autocratic, democratic
one in which the state has non limit to its power/authority, strives to regulate all aspects of public and private life
governed by a leader with absolute and complete power. leadership lasts long periods, change brought on by violent means
predicated on responding to the will of the people - supreme power is vested in the populace
power rests with the citizens, who periodically elect members of there society to some form of assembly to represent them in decision making
a form of nation-state in which the power rests with a single individual or family within which power is inherited ex
monarchy ex queen
on individual holds absolute power to make laws (brutally repressive)
a nation-state in which ultimate power rests with a city or god
why is the internet considered a double edged sword
it can do good and bad to people
mechanisms of social control for enforcing a society's norms through rewards
punishments for violating the norms of a society
mechanisms found in all societies that function to encourage people to maintain social norms
wha the general public thinks about an issue, which, when brought to bear on an individual, can influence his or her behaviour
doing what is right in the context of a legal system
codified ruled enforced through the legitimate use of physical coercion
a system of. justice that focuses on revenge and punishment of the wrongdoer
a system of justice that focuses on resolving conflict, healing, and restoring harmonious relationships.
institutionalized armed conflict between nation-states and other politically distinct groups