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Flashcards in MIDTERM 2 Deck (121):
1

the academic discipline that studies systems of production, distribution, and consumption, typically in the industrial world

economics

2

assumptions about economic behaviour based on the experience of western industrialized economies

formal economic theory

3

why is economics important for people

critical to human survival, faced with common challenges in closing and feeding their populations- must allocate resources

4

Classic economic theory assumes:

with supply and demand, individual act rationally, by economizing to maximize their utility (relationships built on exchange)

5

what does comparative data in anthropology show?

that people frequently respond to motivations other than profit

6

Highly influential economic anthropologist, historian & philosopher (1886-1964)

Karl Polanyi

7

Karl Polanyi divided economics into 3 types according to the dominant mode of distribution:

1. Reciprocity - return of gift
2. Redistribution
3. Market

8

the return/ exchange of a gift

reciprocity

9

collection from members of a group and then redistribution within this group (2 examples)

redistribution
ex, tribute and taxes

10

involves money and profit

Market

11

a society's economy consists of 3 things:

1. production
2. Distribution/ exchange
3. consumption

12

The heart of social and cultural organization

patterns of exchange and circulation

13

what are the 6 questions involved in patterns of exchange and circulation?

who, what, where (significance of place), when (what occasion?), why (social reasons), how (ceremony, mechanisms)

14

example of an exchange item in a tribe

Raffia cloth ( men needed in order to have permission from older men in tribe to marry

15

the act of giving or taking one thing in return for another

exchange

16

according to Marcel Mauss, _______ create relationships not only between individuals but between groups, relationships which take the form of "total prestations"

Gifts

17

Meanings attributed to gifts (8)

1.class
2.social mobility
3.matrimony
4.patronage
5.employment
6.manufacturing processes
7.issues of style
8.conventions of gift-giving

18

Mauss points to 3 obligations of reasons for exchange

1. to give
2. to receive
3. to reciprocate

19

Who said "if friends make gifts, then gifts makes friends"

Marcel Mauss

20

why are obligations kept when gift giving is involved?

both sides benefit for giving and receiving

21

what is the principle of reciprocity?

an equivalent return is expected, the creation of an unequal relationship until a return gift is made maintains the relationship

22

an example of reciprocity

the Nuer and cattle (Relationship with and to cattle also linked to nuer understanding of religion, kinship, and economic and social structure)

23

what are the 3 types of reciprocity exchanges between social equals?

1. generalized
2. balanced
3. negative

24

the practice of giving a gift without expecting a gift in return; creates a moral obligation

Generalized reciprocity

25

the practice of giving a gift with the expectation that it will be reciprocated with a similar gift after a limited period of time (ties with more distant people ex. birthday presents)

Balanced Reciprocity

26

Example of balanced reciprocity

kula ring: armband bestowing a ceremonial gift, which has to be repaid by an equivalent counter-gift after a lapse of time

27

how does hula differ from classic economic ideas of exchange

not based on need, no price mechanism, never ending, values not determined by supply and demand

28

a form of exchange between individuals who try to take advantage of each other (stealing, "taking their life")

Negative reciprocity

29

a mode of distribution in which goods and services are given by members of a group to a central authority (chief) and then distributed back to the donours

redistribution

30

an example of redistribution

potlatches

31

What is a potlatch

a form of ceremonial exchange of gifts among indigenous groups on NW coast of BC

32

the most central symbol of wealth, power and prestige was _______

copper

33

a mode of distribution in which goods and services are brought and sold, and there value is determined by the principle of supply and demand

market exchange

34

legal but unregulated exchange of goods and services that escape government control and regulation

informal market economies

35

illegal markt activités such as prostitution, drug dealing, human trafficking, and racketeering

underground economy

36

what are the 5 adaptive strategies?

1. foraging
2. Horticulture
3. Pastoralism
4. Agriculture
5. Industrialism

37

a form of subsistence that relies on animal, fish, and plant resources found in the natural environment

foraging

38

when is foraging used?

small groups/tribes who are not settling in one area, no point in planting their own

39

small-scale crop cultivation characterized by the use of simple technology and the absence of irrigation and fertilizer

Horticulture

40

after a couple years when the land is no longer useful they slash and burn and move to new land to grow... is an example of what adaptive strategy?

horticulture

41

horticulture adaptions/characteristics? (5)

1. gardening towards the women
2. increase labor intensity
3. surplus of food
4. notions of private property
5. warfare (stealing crops)

42

a food-getting strategy based on animal husbandry; found in regions of. the world generally unsuited for agriculture

pastoralism

43

how do the animals in pastoral get food and water

all members of society are constantly moving with the heards during migration

44

food production that relies on technology sources of energy rather than human or animal energy

industrial agriculture

45

a form of food production that requires intensive working of the land with plows and draft animals and the use of techniques of soil and water control

intensive agriculture

46

costs of agriculture (2)

1. extremely labour extensive
2. risks of long term drought

47

benefits of agriculture (3)

1. long term/ more stable
2.larger, permanent populations
3.high degree of specialization

48

relationships between people based on blood or marriage

kinship

49

______ often formed the basis for the study of simple societies and groups explored in ethnographies

kinship

50

what did W.H.R. Rivers in the Torres Straight Expedition believe was the first step an anthropologist should take?

they needed to know who was related to whom, as soon as possible

51

what are the 2 types of Kinship?

Consanguineal relatives and affinal relatives

52

ones biological or blood relative

consanguineal relatives

53

kinship ties formed through marriage (in-laws)

affinal relatives

54

all kinship systems are based on ________ connections

biological

55

why is Kinship important in societies? (4)

1. sets limits on sexual activity and who can marry
2. determines where we live
3.influences how children are taught and cared for
4. broadens social ties and connects different groups together

56

relationships among individuals who recognize kinship obligations even though the relationships are not based on either consanguineal or affinal ties

fictive kinship

57

what are 4 examples of fictive kinship

adoptive children, godparent-godchild, close friends referred as 'aunt', fraternities

58

how is kinship biological? and who uses biological kinship

whoever is the biological mother or father can claim the child (Canada)

59

how is kinship social? and who uses it?

eternity linked to relational time. Must nurture the child over a certain number of years to claim them (Zumbagua)

60

what are the 2 categories to classify kinship relationships?

kin types, kin terms

61

universal terms anthropologists use to refer to particular individuals in a kinship system

Kin types

62

the names cultures give to particular categories of relatives

Kin terms

63

example of kin term and kin type

term= mother, type= M

64

what are the 6 basic classification systems for kin?

1. inuit 2. Iroquois systems 3. Hawaiian 4. Omaha 5. sudanese 6. crow

65

what is a Canadian ex of classifying kin?

"aunt" = mom's sister, dad's sister, wife of mom's brother

66

the kinship system most commonly found in Canada; it is associated with bilateral descent

eskimo (inuit) system

67

what did lewis Henry Morgan do?

discovered the inuit system

68

what is the major feature of the inuit system?

it emphasizes the nuclear family by using operate terms (mother, brother, father) that are not used outside the nuclear family

69

a kinship system associated with unilineal descent in which the father and father's brother are called by the same term, as are the mother and mother's sister.

Iroquoise system

70

the person in kinship diagram from whose point of view relationships are traced

EGO

71

the __________system emphasizes the important of unilinear descent groups by distinguishing between members of ones own lineage and members of other lineages

iroquois

72

EGO's father and fathers brother are linked under the same term but not sisters brother. this is an example of what system?

iroquois

73

a persons kinship connections traced back through number of generations

decent

74

2 categories of decent

unilinear and Multilinear

75

traced through either mothers line OR fathers line but not both

unilinear descent

76

a form of descent in which people trace their primary kin connections through their mothers

matrilineal descent group

77

a form of descent in which people trace their primary kin relationships through their fathers

patrilineal descent group

78

the majority of kinship systems are based around _______ reckonings of descent

unilineal

79

a unilinear descent group whose members claim a common ancestry even though the cannot trace step by step their exact connection to that ancestor

clan

80

who are a example of clans?

scotland, first nations peoples in Canada

81

a unilinear descent group whose members can trace their line of descent back to a common ancestor

lineage

82

______ tend to be geographically dispersed in modern society - more a 'loose' social grouping, but with a strong group identity

clans

83

where is the largest patrilineal society?

China

84

15%of unilinear descent groups are reckoned through ______

and give an example of whom

matrilines

First Nations, Iroquois

85

what are the 6 characteristics of unilinear that shape people?

1. identity shaping 2. marriage regulation 3. property regulation 4. dispute settlement 5. religious deities 6. justice system

86

what are the 3 multilineal descent types?

1. Double descent
2. Ambilineal descent
3. Bilateral descent

87

a system of descent in which individuals receive some rights and obligations from the fathers side of the family and others from the mothers side

double descent

88

where is double descent found? and ex

most African groups
ex. livestock can be inherited from both sides

89

a form of descent in which a person chooses to affiliate with a kin group through either the Male or female line

ambilineal descent

90

who and why do people use ambilineal descent

south east Asia and Hawaiians
parents choose to affiliate their children with whichever has the most advantages

91

a type of kinship system in which individuals emphasize both their mothers kin and their fathers kin relatively equally

Bilateral

92

who uses bilateral descent

Canada

93

closely related people who are connected through both parents to 1 living relative

kindred

94

conducting oneself in a fair and throughful manner is long for

ethics

95

why do we need ethics in research?

help guard against the potential exploitation of participants, instil a high standard of professional conduct, transparency

96

what are 3 landmark studies involving anthropology ethics

1. Milgram obedience experiments
2. Laud Humphries "Tea Room Trade"
3. Stanford Prison Experiment

97

what was the milligram obedience experiment?

to see if people would knowingly hurt other persons while being pressured by a "higher" authority

98

what was the tea room trade?

observing and documenting homosexual encounters of publicly heterosexual men

99

what are the 3 codes of ethics under AAA

1. do no harm
2. be open and honest about your work
3.obtain consent

100

why is ethics important in anthropology?

the people being studied notice and can reject the study

101

the way sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave

gender

102

expected ways of behaving based on a society's definition of masculinity and femininity

gender roles

103

the gender a person identifies with among the range of culturally appropriate possibilities

gender identity

104

an example of a third gender

Hijra of India and Pakistan

105

how do Hijra earn a living?

begging, prostitutes, dancers, and bless places

106

First Nations and native american individuals who possess both masculine and feminine characteristics, and hold a respected place in their communities

two-spirit

107

why were multigendered people presumed to be people of power?

because they have both maleness and femaleness in one body, they are believed to be able to 'see; with the eyes of both men and women

108

oversimplified bugs strongly held ideas of the characteristics of men and womw=en

gender stereotypes

109

a system of thoughts and values that legitimizes sex roles, statuses and customers behaviour

gender ideology

110

an unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in social hierarcy

gender stratification

111

a traditional North American gender role that views males as being responsible for the economic support and protection of the family

breadwinner

112

a traditional North American gender role that views females as responsible for child rearing and domestic activities

homemaker

113

a couple ways of measuring gender stratification are.. (6)

economics, politics, religion, legal rights, education. freedom to choose marriage partner

114

what are some reason for inequity between men and women in the workplace?(5)

1.motherhood penalty
2.negotiation
3.employer bias
4.education disparities
5. over representation in lower-wage jobs

115

what is the biological argument in regards to inequity?

testosterone naturally leads men to be more aggressive and oestrogen renders women more compliant

116

is the biological argument he reason for inequity? and why

no, some societies it is the women who do the labours jobs

117

Why is the domestic/public opposition ultimately derived from women's roles as mother and rearer of children?

like breastfeeding, being pregnant, and tending children would have been to dangerous if they had been hunting with the men. ie. Having to take breaks to breast feed, or having child with them for long periods in the woods

118

with the Hagen of New Guinea:
1. pursuing socially valued goals is"______________"
2. pursuing individual family interests is "______________"

1. acting like a man
2. Acting like a woman

119

where is an example that women are the leaders in their community?

Six Nations Iroquois confederacy

120

when we see signs of the injustice of systems which polarize the sexes and demean women it is important to remember what?

that women are also actors in these systems

121

2 ways women often exert important political pressure:

1. influencing the public political affairs of men from behind the scenes
2. pursuing strategies of controlling labour and prestige Within the constraints of the system