Flashcards in MIDTERM 2 Deck (121):
the academic discipline that studies systems of production, distribution, and consumption, typically in the industrial world
assumptions about economic behaviour based on the experience of western industrialized economies
formal economic theory
why is economics important for people
critical to human survival, faced with common challenges in closing and feeding their populations- must allocate resources
Classic economic theory assumes:
with supply and demand, individual act rationally, by economizing to maximize their utility (relationships built on exchange)
what does comparative data in anthropology show?
that people frequently respond to motivations other than profit
Highly influential economic anthropologist, historian & philosopher (1886-1964)
Karl Polanyi divided economics into 3 types according to the dominant mode of distribution:
1. Reciprocity - return of gift
the return/ exchange of a gift
collection from members of a group and then redistribution within this group (2 examples)
ex, tribute and taxes
involves money and profit
a society's economy consists of 3 things:
2. Distribution/ exchange
The heart of social and cultural organization
patterns of exchange and circulation
what are the 6 questions involved in patterns of exchange and circulation?
who, what, where (significance of place), when (what occasion?), why (social reasons), how (ceremony, mechanisms)
example of an exchange item in a tribe
Raffia cloth ( men needed in order to have permission from older men in tribe to marry
the act of giving or taking one thing in return for another
according to Marcel Mauss, _______ create relationships not only between individuals but between groups, relationships which take the form of "total prestations"
Meanings attributed to gifts (8)
7.issues of style
8.conventions of gift-giving
Mauss points to 3 obligations of reasons for exchange
1. to give
2. to receive
3. to reciprocate
Who said "if friends make gifts, then gifts makes friends"
why are obligations kept when gift giving is involved?
both sides benefit for giving and receiving
what is the principle of reciprocity?
an equivalent return is expected, the creation of an unequal relationship until a return gift is made maintains the relationship
an example of reciprocity
the Nuer and cattle (Relationship with and to cattle also linked to nuer understanding of religion, kinship, and economic and social structure)
what are the 3 types of reciprocity exchanges between social equals?
the practice of giving a gift without expecting a gift in return; creates a moral obligation
the practice of giving a gift with the expectation that it will be reciprocated with a similar gift after a limited period of time (ties with more distant people ex. birthday presents)
Example of balanced reciprocity
kula ring: armband bestowing a ceremonial gift, which has to be repaid by an equivalent counter-gift after a lapse of time
how does hula differ from classic economic ideas of exchange
not based on need, no price mechanism, never ending, values not determined by supply and demand
a form of exchange between individuals who try to take advantage of each other (stealing, "taking their life")
a mode of distribution in which goods and services are given by members of a group to a central authority (chief) and then distributed back to the donours
an example of redistribution
What is a potlatch
a form of ceremonial exchange of gifts among indigenous groups on NW coast of BC
the most central symbol of wealth, power and prestige was _______
a mode of distribution in which goods and services are brought and sold, and there value is determined by the principle of supply and demand
legal but unregulated exchange of goods and services that escape government control and regulation
informal market economies
illegal markt activités such as prostitution, drug dealing, human trafficking, and racketeering
what are the 5 adaptive strategies?
a form of subsistence that relies on animal, fish, and plant resources found in the natural environment
when is foraging used?
small groups/tribes who are not settling in one area, no point in planting their own
small-scale crop cultivation characterized by the use of simple technology and the absence of irrigation and fertilizer
after a couple years when the land is no longer useful they slash and burn and move to new land to grow... is an example of what adaptive strategy?
horticulture adaptions/characteristics? (5)
1. gardening towards the women
2. increase labor intensity
3. surplus of food
4. notions of private property
5. warfare (stealing crops)
a food-getting strategy based on animal husbandry; found in regions of. the world generally unsuited for agriculture
how do the animals in pastoral get food and water
all members of society are constantly moving with the heards during migration
food production that relies on technology sources of energy rather than human or animal energy
a form of food production that requires intensive working of the land with plows and draft animals and the use of techniques of soil and water control
costs of agriculture (2)
1. extremely labour extensive
2. risks of long term drought
benefits of agriculture (3)
1. long term/ more stable
2.larger, permanent populations
3.high degree of specialization
relationships between people based on blood or marriage
______ often formed the basis for the study of simple societies and groups explored in ethnographies
what did W.H.R. Rivers in the Torres Straight Expedition believe was the first step an anthropologist should take?
they needed to know who was related to whom, as soon as possible
what are the 2 types of Kinship?
Consanguineal relatives and affinal relatives
ones biological or blood relative
kinship ties formed through marriage (in-laws)
all kinship systems are based on ________ connections
why is Kinship important in societies? (4)
1. sets limits on sexual activity and who can marry
2. determines where we live
3.influences how children are taught and cared for
4. broadens social ties and connects different groups together
relationships among individuals who recognize kinship obligations even though the relationships are not based on either consanguineal or affinal ties
what are 4 examples of fictive kinship
adoptive children, godparent-godchild, close friends referred as 'aunt', fraternities
how is kinship biological? and who uses biological kinship
whoever is the biological mother or father can claim the child (Canada)
how is kinship social? and who uses it?
eternity linked to relational time. Must nurture the child over a certain number of years to claim them (Zumbagua)
what are the 2 categories to classify kinship relationships?
kin types, kin terms
universal terms anthropologists use to refer to particular individuals in a kinship system
the names cultures give to particular categories of relatives
example of kin term and kin type
term= mother, type= M
what are the 6 basic classification systems for kin?
1. inuit 2. Iroquois systems 3. Hawaiian 4. Omaha 5. sudanese 6. crow
what is a Canadian ex of classifying kin?
"aunt" = mom's sister, dad's sister, wife of mom's brother
the kinship system most commonly found in Canada; it is associated with bilateral descent
eskimo (inuit) system
what did lewis Henry Morgan do?
discovered the inuit system
what is the major feature of the inuit system?
it emphasizes the nuclear family by using operate terms (mother, brother, father) that are not used outside the nuclear family
a kinship system associated with unilineal descent in which the father and father's brother are called by the same term, as are the mother and mother's sister.
the person in kinship diagram from whose point of view relationships are traced
the __________system emphasizes the important of unilinear descent groups by distinguishing between members of ones own lineage and members of other lineages
EGO's father and fathers brother are linked under the same term but not sisters brother. this is an example of what system?
a persons kinship connections traced back through number of generations
2 categories of decent
unilinear and Multilinear
traced through either mothers line OR fathers line but not both
a form of descent in which people trace their primary kin connections through their mothers
matrilineal descent group
a form of descent in which people trace their primary kin relationships through their fathers
patrilineal descent group
the majority of kinship systems are based around _______ reckonings of descent
a unilinear descent group whose members claim a common ancestry even though the cannot trace step by step their exact connection to that ancestor
who are a example of clans?
scotland, first nations peoples in Canada
a unilinear descent group whose members can trace their line of descent back to a common ancestor
______ tend to be geographically dispersed in modern society - more a 'loose' social grouping, but with a strong group identity
where is the largest patrilineal society?
15%of unilinear descent groups are reckoned through ______
and give an example of whom
First Nations, Iroquois
what are the 6 characteristics of unilinear that shape people?
1. identity shaping 2. marriage regulation 3. property regulation 4. dispute settlement 5. religious deities 6. justice system
what are the 3 multilineal descent types?
1. Double descent
2. Ambilineal descent
3. Bilateral descent
a system of descent in which individuals receive some rights and obligations from the fathers side of the family and others from the mothers side
where is double descent found? and ex
most African groups
ex. livestock can be inherited from both sides
a form of descent in which a person chooses to affiliate with a kin group through either the Male or female line
who and why do people use ambilineal descent
south east Asia and Hawaiians
parents choose to affiliate their children with whichever has the most advantages
a type of kinship system in which individuals emphasize both their mothers kin and their fathers kin relatively equally
who uses bilateral descent
closely related people who are connected through both parents to 1 living relative
conducting oneself in a fair and throughful manner is long for
why do we need ethics in research?
help guard against the potential exploitation of participants, instil a high standard of professional conduct, transparency
what are 3 landmark studies involving anthropology ethics
1. Milgram obedience experiments
2. Laud Humphries "Tea Room Trade"
3. Stanford Prison Experiment
what was the milligram obedience experiment?
to see if people would knowingly hurt other persons while being pressured by a "higher" authority
what was the tea room trade?
observing and documenting homosexual encounters of publicly heterosexual men
what are the 3 codes of ethics under AAA
1. do no harm
2. be open and honest about your work
why is ethics important in anthropology?
the people being studied notice and can reject the study
the way sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave
expected ways of behaving based on a society's definition of masculinity and femininity
the gender a person identifies with among the range of culturally appropriate possibilities
an example of a third gender
Hijra of India and Pakistan
how do Hijra earn a living?
begging, prostitutes, dancers, and bless places
First Nations and native american individuals who possess both masculine and feminine characteristics, and hold a respected place in their communities
why were multigendered people presumed to be people of power?
because they have both maleness and femaleness in one body, they are believed to be able to 'see; with the eyes of both men and women
oversimplified bugs strongly held ideas of the characteristics of men and womw=en
a system of thoughts and values that legitimizes sex roles, statuses and customers behaviour
an unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in social hierarcy
a traditional North American gender role that views males as being responsible for the economic support and protection of the family
a traditional North American gender role that views females as responsible for child rearing and domestic activities
a couple ways of measuring gender stratification are.. (6)
economics, politics, religion, legal rights, education. freedom to choose marriage partner
what are some reason for inequity between men and women in the workplace?(5)
5. over representation in lower-wage jobs
what is the biological argument in regards to inequity?
testosterone naturally leads men to be more aggressive and oestrogen renders women more compliant
is the biological argument he reason for inequity? and why
no, some societies it is the women who do the labours jobs
Why is the domestic/public opposition ultimately derived from women's roles as mother and rearer of children?
like breastfeeding, being pregnant, and tending children would have been to dangerous if they had been hunting with the men. ie. Having to take breaks to breast feed, or having child with them for long periods in the woods
with the Hagen of New Guinea:
1. pursuing socially valued goals is"______________"
2. pursuing individual family interests is "______________"
1. acting like a man
2. Acting like a woman
where is an example that women are the leaders in their community?
Six Nations Iroquois confederacy
when we see signs of the injustice of systems which polarize the sexes and demean women it is important to remember what?
that women are also actors in these systems