Flashcards in MIDTERM 1 Deck (117):
What is anthropology?
The study of nature and states of being of humans
from the greek 'anthropos'= and 'logo'=
anthropos = humans, logos= to study
what are the 4 fields of anthropology?
what are the 9 branches of social/cultural anthropology?
What is fieldwork
the immersive study and writing up of groups and cultures that occurs over periods of months and years
looking at the world from the perspective of ones own culture. provides a narrow view of the world and often leads to the belief that ones own ideas and ways of doing things are better than those of others
Holism and an example
to consider all parts of culture in order to apprehend collective meaning
ex. need to see the bigger picture so as to understand all the details
Cultual relativism and an example
the idea that cultural traits are best understood when viewed within the cultural context of which they are a part of. Ex some countries like to eat mouse sandwiches
why is cultural relativism considered a cognitive tool?
it helps us understand why people do and think what they do
Etic perspectives (phonetic means)
means the view of outsiders, which includes anthropologists, and how we apply categories to our understanding of cultural events
Means = the sounds of words
Emic perspective (phonemic meaning)
view of the cultural insider, something anthropologists strive to attain
Phonemic = the meaning of words
The most important discovery of the 1898 Cambridge Expedition to the Torres Straits was that:
the quality of much of the data contained in the ethnological writings was poorly informed
Cross-cultual comparison = By observing the patterns of similarity and differences between cultures, a range of possibilities
helps us understand issues facing many cultures worldwide, such as the impact of globalization, environmental changes, and issues regarding human rights and inequality.
Dilemas of anthropology
1. people they study may not appreciate a detached perspective
2. Colonial legacy of mistrust about the discipline the world over
the coming together of things happening outside
Take away of anthropology
indirectly teaches the learner about thrown culture and shapes/reshapes what we know and what we think we know
What is culture (5 levels)
1. Environment 2. behaviours 3. the way we do things 4. values and attitudes 5. fundamentals of the culture
Definition: everything that people have, thank and do as a member of society
Definition: abstract concepts of what is important to people in their everyday lives which they act to acquire or maintain
Definition: evaluations or feelings, either negative or positive, about such things as behaviours, people, objects, ideas, and even ourselves
______ are learned and difficult to change
_______ evolve and change when you get older
Definition: have to do with the knowledge of the state of affairs; what one thinks is true
_______ are powerful, people are willing to die for them
Definition: Ideas about what is appropriate and what is inappropriate behaviour
Unwritten rules about what is appropriate & inappropriate in specific situations are ________
7 characteristics of culture?
What is Enculturation?
the process by which humans learn their culture
How is culture Unconscious?
it is ingrained in us that we often take it for granted and view our values and behaviours as natural and normal
through sharing, we are better able to ______ and _______ the actions of others
understand and predict
how is culture integrated?
parts of culture ie. things, ideas, behaviours patterns are interconnected. A change in one part of the culture is likely to bring out changes In other parts of the culture.
how is culture symbolic?
the capacity to use such symbols as language and art enables people to better understand the world around them
an example of Culture relative
some counties know that they have to wear deodorant all the time but some countries think hat it is unnecessary to do so
How is culture adaptive? and an example
it enables people to adapt to their environment an thus increase their chance of survival ex. farmers change the land to grow what they need.
How is culture dynamic?
the things, ideas, and behaviours change constantly. Like clothes, and products that we use
humans are adaptive and flexible, which means different societies come up with their own ways of solving problems is an example of?
the spreading of elements of culture from one group to another
any new thing, idea, or behaviour pattern that emerges from within a society
the 19th century anthropological theory that cultures evolved from savagery through barbarism to civilization
which 2 anthropologists developed the evolutionism (primitive culture) theory? 1900
E.D Taylor and Lewis Henry Morgan
Evolutionary anthropologist are known as ______________ anthropologists which means evolutionism was ___________________
arm chair , ethnocentric
What are the 3 levels of social evolution to types of religion (E.B. Taylor 1900)
1. Savagery- animism 2. barbarism- polytheism 3.civilization- monotheism
elements of cultural that evolutionary anthropologists believed had survived from an earlier period
a 1898 British expedition that investigated the cultures and people of the Torres straits
cambridge expedition to the Torres straights
What were 2 key traits absent from field work at the beginning?
participation and sociological theory
the institutions of a society that transcended the individual and have a coercive influence such that people follow the appropriate cultural norms.
3 rules of the sociological method
1. society is a part of nature and a science of society must be based on the same principles as those of the natural sciences
2.social facts must be treated as things, i.e. objectively
3. functions must be clearly distinguished from intention or purpose
integration,function and determination is what
the root ideas of functionalism
what is Bronislaw Malinowski known for
the first anthropologist to actually emerge himself into his field work instead of watching from the outside
"the goal is to grasp the natives point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world" who said this
Every institution centers around a ___________ ______
What was A.R Redcliffe-browns belief?
when people fulfil their roles they are maintaining the structure of their society
Radcliffe- browns 5 basic principles?
1. Society seen as an organically structured whole, like a biological organism
2.society has a social structure - an ordered arrangement of parts
3.struture is ideally integrated, unified, and exists in equilibrium
4.this structure is the objective of analysis
5. social activities and institutions ultimately interpreted in terms of maintaining the whole social structure of the society
What is the reasoning for function of institutions to maintain structure?
to keep people in line, so they know what is right and what is wrong
what are 2 criticisms of functionalism?
how is it decided whats good for societies? how do they account for change?
Definition: the theory that social institutions are integrated and function to maintain or satisfy the biological needs of the individual.
a school of anthropology prominent in the first part of the 20th centre that insisted on the collection of ethnographic data (through direct fieldwork) before making cross-culture generalizations
What was the name of Fanz Boas's approach?
Who said : "cultures can only be understood with reference to their particular historical development - therefore, each culture is unique"?
Boasian concept of culture (3)
Superorganic, Unconcious, adaptive
the product of collective or group life; but the individual has an influence
Seeks to understand the growth and development of personal or social identity as it relates to the surrounding social environment
culture and personality
Who said "we have seen that any society selects segments of the arc of possible human behaviours.. and in so far as it achieves integrations its institutions tend to further the expression of its selected segment and inhibit opposite expressions"?
a 20th century school of cultural anthropology whereby similarities between cultures could be explained by parallel adaptions to similar natural environments
an approach to anthropology that examines the interactions between people who reside in similar environments and their technologies, social structure, and political institutions
the position that reality is shaped or constructed by ideas (to find values, meanings and ideas we have to focus on intangible things like symbols and morals)
the position that reality shapes or influences ideas (look at material phenomena, how human biological nature and the environment influence peoples ideas and values)
an anthropology theory that cultural systems are most influenced by such material things as natural resources, technology and human biology
3 components of culture
integrated, holistic, deterministic
given example of cultural materialism
sacred cow. a respect for animal life and what hey are told is sacred (idealism) or that the cows give them everything they need milk, plow the land so they keep them around for their needs (materialism)
a theoretical school in anthropology that views the goal of anthropology as the interpretation of symbols
a theoretical orientation holding that culture Is a web of symbols and meaning, and the job of anthropology is to interpret those meanings
a theoretical approach that seeks to describe and explain cultural life from the perspective of women
what did feminist anthropology do once brought up with research done in the past
anthropologists would go back to the original fieldwork place to study and learn from both the men and women, so they got both/ all sides
a perspective that, as its core, examines the abstract issues of conflict, ideology and power
political economy is useful when researching societies with __________ social culture
a perspective that examines how unequal relations in and among societies affect the use of the natural environment and its resources, especially in the context of wide-ranging ecological settings, and subsequent economic, policy, and regulatory actions (how poor acts upon peopled what coercive effects it may have)
a school of anthropology that advocates the switch from cultural generalization and laws to description, interpretation, and the search for meaning
what type of anthropology do anthropologists use now
what do postmodernism anthropologist think about the info of fieldworks done before them
because the collection of anthropological data is subjective, it is not possible to analyze the data objectively
recognition of anthropology biases as well as the influence of the anthropologists own personal situation and experiences tin the protection of anthropological knowledge.
reflexive anthropologists is written more like a _______ or ________ rather than the conventional ethnographic genre
diaries or autobiographies
what is a criticism of postmodernism?
if all writing is nothing more than interpretations f interpretations, then ethnography is fiction. No conclusions can ultimately be reached about anything
what does 'ethnos' and 'graphs' mean?
people - to write
2 forms of ethnographic research
PAR- participatory action research
CBPR- community based participatory research
PAR- participatory action research involves...
CBPR- community based participatory research involves...
collaboration, integrated into community, seeks local partners
2 types of data
qualitative and quantitative
descriptive data (oral histories, observations, interviews and charts)
numerical representation of populations, births/ marriages, income, etc
6 stages of field research
1. select a research problem
2.formulate the research design
3. collect data
4. analyze data
5. interpret the data
6. write it, disseminate results
usual research methods
observation, participant observation, interviews, photography, content analysis
3 types of interviews
unstructured( chats), semi-structured (open ended questions), structured (same script to each person)
anthropologists generally like to use ____________ research because its flexible and if its not wiring they can try something new
focuses on the interaction between the researcher and those being studied
an ethnographic method in which the ethnographer attempts to understand another culture through description and analysis of their when fieldwork experiance
a rule in anthropology ethics?
to ensure that research involving humans unfolds ethically a 'do not harm" principle
the capacity to think and perceive in the categories of ones own culture as well as in the categories of a second culture
the process of sharing information and knowledge through either language or some non-verbal system of meaning
a symbolic system of arbitrary sounds that, when put together according to a certain set of rules, convey meaning to its speakers
a nonverbal form of communication that accompanies words and helps to convey their meaning as well as expressing the emotional state of the speaker
a form of non-verbal communication that involves touch
cultures in which communication is indirect, relying heavily on he context to convey meaning (and what countries)
high-context (Asia, Middle East, African countries)
cultures in which communication is direct and unambiguous, where meaning is conveyed by the words themselves (and what countries?)
low-context cultures (Canada, US)
language has a system 1________, 2_______, 3______
1. sounds 2. patterns, systematic nature
study of language in relation to society - social uses of language
language is fundamental to the creation an expression of social identity and differences
speakers of 2 or more languages or varieties of one language switch between the 2, depending on the social contect
a different language to speak at home vs at work is an example of ?
things that mark your speech, how people can tell where you are from
the notion that a persons language shapes her or his perceptions and view of the world, and consequently their behaviour
the gendered differences in language
criticism of Sapir-Whorf
not all activities involve language but do involve thought
pollution resulting from the large-scale use of automobiles in a country shows that culture can be ____
The perspective where mind and body, individual and society, and individual and environment interpenetrate is known as ____________