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1

What is anthropology?

The study of nature and states of being of humans

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from the greek 'anthropos'= and 'logo'=

anthropos = humans, logos= to study

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what are the 4 fields of anthropology?

1. physical/biological
2. archaeology
3. linguistics
4. social/cultural

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what are the 9 branches of social/cultural anthropology?

economic
kinship
medical
psychological
urban
applied
gender
political
religion

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What is fieldwork

the immersive study and writing up of groups and cultures that occurs over periods of months and years

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Ethnocentrism

looking at the world from the perspective of ones own culture. provides a narrow view of the world and often leads to the belief that ones own ideas and ways of doing things are better than those of others

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Holism and an example

to consider all parts of culture in order to apprehend collective meaning
ex. need to see the bigger picture so as to understand all the details

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Cultual relativism and an example

the idea that cultural traits are best understood when viewed within the cultural context of which they are a part of. Ex some countries like to eat mouse sandwiches

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why is cultural relativism considered a cognitive tool?

it helps us understand why people do and think what they do

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Etic perspectives (phonetic means)

means the view of outsiders, which includes anthropologists, and how we apply categories to our understanding of cultural events
Means = the sounds of words

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Emic perspective (phonemic meaning)

view of the cultural insider, something anthropologists strive to attain
Phonemic = the meaning of words

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The most important discovery of the 1898 Cambridge Expedition to the Torres Straits was that:

the quality of much of the data contained in the ethnological writings was poorly informed

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Comparative approach

Cross-cultual comparison = By observing the patterns of similarity and differences between cultures, a range of possibilities

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helps us understand issues facing many cultures worldwide, such as the impact of globalization, environmental changes, and issues regarding human rights and inequality.

cross-cultural comparison

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Dilemas of anthropology

1. people they study may not appreciate a detached perspective
2. Colonial legacy of mistrust about the discipline the world over

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Globalization

the coming together of things happening outside

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Take away of anthropology

indirectly teaches the learner about thrown culture and shapes/reshapes what we know and what we think we know

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What is culture (5 levels)

1. Environment 2. behaviours 3. the way we do things 4. values and attitudes 5. fundamentals of the culture

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Definition: everything that people have, thank and do as a member of society

culture

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Definition: abstract concepts of what is important to people in their everyday lives which they act to acquire or maintain

Values

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Definition: evaluations or feelings, either negative or positive, about such things as behaviours, people, objects, ideas, and even ourselves

Attitudes

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______ are learned and difficult to change

attitudes

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_______ evolve and change when you get older

Values

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Definition: have to do with the knowledge of the state of affairs; what one thinks is true

Beliefs

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_______ are powerful, people are willing to die for them

Beliefs

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Definition: Ideas about what is appropriate and what is inappropriate behaviour

Norms

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Unwritten rules about what is appropriate & inappropriate in specific situations are ________

Norms

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7 characteristics of culture?

1. Learned
2.Unconsious
3.Integrated
4.Shared
5.Relative
6.Adaptive
7. Dynamic

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What is Enculturation?

the process by which humans learn their culture

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How is culture Unconscious?

it is ingrained in us that we often take it for granted and view our values and behaviours as natural and normal

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through sharing, we are better able to ______ and _______ the actions of others

understand and predict

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how is culture integrated?

parts of culture ie. things, ideas, behaviours patterns are interconnected. A change in one part of the culture is likely to bring out changes In other parts of the culture.

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how is culture symbolic?

the capacity to use such symbols as language and art enables people to better understand the world around them

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an example of Culture relative

some counties know that they have to wear deodorant all the time but some countries think hat it is unnecessary to do so

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How is culture adaptive? and an example

it enables people to adapt to their environment an thus increase their chance of survival ex. farmers change the land to grow what they need.

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How is culture dynamic?

the things, ideas, and behaviours change constantly. Like clothes, and products that we use

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humans are adaptive and flexible, which means different societies come up with their own ways of solving problems is an example of?

Cultural universals

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Cultural diffusion

the spreading of elements of culture from one group to another

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any new thing, idea, or behaviour pattern that emerges from within a society

innovation

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the 19th century anthropological theory that cultures evolved from savagery through barbarism to civilization

evolutionism

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which 2 anthropologists developed the evolutionism (primitive culture) theory? 1900

E.D Taylor and Lewis Henry Morgan

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Evolutionary anthropologist are known as ______________ anthropologists which means evolutionism was ___________________

arm chair , ethnocentric

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What are the 3 levels of social evolution to types of religion (E.B. Taylor 1900)

1. Savagery- animism 2. barbarism- polytheism 3.civilization- monotheism

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elements of cultural that evolutionary anthropologists believed had survived from an earlier period

survivals

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a 1898 British expedition that investigated the cultures and people of the Torres straits

cambridge expedition to the Torres straights

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What were 2 key traits absent from field work at the beginning?

participation and sociological theory

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the institutions of a society that transcended the individual and have a coercive influence such that people follow the appropriate cultural norms.

social facts

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3 rules of the sociological method

1. society is a part of nature and a science of society must be based on the same principles as those of the natural sciences
2.social facts must be treated as things, i.e. objectively
3. functions must be clearly distinguished from intention or purpose

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integration,function and determination is what

the root ideas of functionalism

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what is Bronislaw Malinowski known for

the first anthropologist to actually emerge himself into his field work instead of watching from the outside

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"the goal is to grasp the natives point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world" who said this

Malinowski

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Every institution centers around a ___________ ______

fundamental need

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What was A.R Redcliffe-browns belief?

when people fulfil their roles they are maintaining the structure of their society

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Radcliffe- browns 5 basic principles?

1. Society seen as an organically structured whole, like a biological organism
2.society has a social structure - an ordered arrangement of parts
3.struture is ideally integrated, unified, and exists in equilibrium
4.this structure is the objective of analysis
5. social activities and institutions ultimately interpreted in terms of maintaining the whole social structure of the society

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What is the reasoning for function of institutions to maintain structure?

to keep people in line, so they know what is right and what is wrong

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what are 2 criticisms of functionalism?

how is it decided whats good for societies? how do they account for change?

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Definition: the theory that social institutions are integrated and function to maintain or satisfy the biological needs of the individual.

Functionalism

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a school of anthropology prominent in the first part of the 20th centre that insisted on the collection of ethnographic data (through direct fieldwork) before making cross-culture generalizations

historical particularism

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What was the name of Fanz Boas's approach?

historical particularism

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Who said : "cultures can only be understood with reference to their particular historical development - therefore, each culture is unique"?

Boas

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Boasian concept of culture (3)

Superorganic, Unconcious, adaptive

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the product of collective or group life; but the individual has an influence

superorganic

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Seeks to understand the growth and development of personal or social identity as it relates to the surrounding social environment

culture and personality

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Who said "we have seen that any society selects segments of the arc of possible human behaviours.. and in so far as it achieves integrations its institutions tend to further the expression of its selected segment and inhibit opposite expressions"?

Benedict

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a 20th century school of cultural anthropology whereby similarities between cultures could be explained by parallel adaptions to similar natural environments

neoevolutionism

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an approach to anthropology that examines the interactions between people who reside in similar environments and their technologies, social structure, and political institutions

cultural ecology

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the position that reality is shaped or constructed by ideas (to find values, meanings and ideas we have to focus on intangible things like symbols and morals)

idealism

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the position that reality shapes or influences ideas (look at material phenomena, how human biological nature and the environment influence peoples ideas and values)

materialism

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an anthropology theory that cultural systems are most influenced by such material things as natural resources, technology and human biology

cultural materialism

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3 components of culture

integrated, holistic, deterministic

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given example of cultural materialism

sacred cow. a respect for animal life and what hey are told is sacred (idealism) or that the cows give them everything they need milk, plow the land so they keep them around for their needs (materialism)

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a theoretical school in anthropology that views the goal of anthropology as the interpretation of symbols

symbolic anthropology

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a theoretical orientation holding that culture Is a web of symbols and meaning, and the job of anthropology is to interpret those meanings

interpretive anthropology

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a theoretical approach that seeks to describe and explain cultural life from the perspective of women

feminist anthropology

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what did feminist anthropology do once brought up with research done in the past

anthropologists would go back to the original fieldwork place to study and learn from both the men and women, so they got both/ all sides

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a perspective that, as its core, examines the abstract issues of conflict, ideology and power

political economy

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political economy is useful when researching societies with __________ social culture

hierarchy

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a perspective that examines how unequal relations in and among societies affect the use of the natural environment and its resources, especially in the context of wide-ranging ecological settings, and subsequent economic, policy, and regulatory actions (how poor acts upon peopled what coercive effects it may have)

political ecology

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a school of anthropology that advocates the switch from cultural generalization and laws to description, interpretation, and the search for meaning

postmodernist anthropology

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what type of anthropology do anthropologists use now

postmodernist

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what do postmodernism anthropologist think about the info of fieldworks done before them

because the collection of anthropological data is subjective, it is not possible to analyze the data objectively

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recognition of anthropology biases as well as the influence of the anthropologists own personal situation and experiences tin the protection of anthropological knowledge.

reflexive anthropology

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reflexive anthropologists is written more like a _______ or ________ rather than the conventional ethnographic genre

diaries or autobiographies

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what is a criticism of postmodernism?

if all writing is nothing more than interpretations f interpretations, then ethnography is fiction. No conclusions can ultimately be reached about anything

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what does 'ethnos' and 'graphs' mean?

people - to write

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2 forms of ethnographic research

PAR- participatory action research
CBPR- community based participatory research

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PAR- participatory action research involves...

locals

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CBPR- community based participatory research involves...

collaboration, integrated into community, seeks local partners

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2 types of data

qualitative and quantitative

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Qualitative data

descriptive data (oral histories, observations, interviews and charts)

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quantitative data

numerical representation of populations, births/ marriages, income, etc

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6 stages of field research

1. select a research problem
2.formulate the research design
3. collect data
4. analyze data
5. interpret the data
6. write it, disseminate results

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usual research methods

observation, participant observation, interviews, photography, content analysis

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3 types of interviews

unstructured( chats), semi-structured (open ended questions), structured (same script to each person)

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anthropologists generally like to use ____________ research because its flexible and if its not wiring they can try something new

qualitative

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focuses on the interaction between the researcher and those being studied

reflexive ethnography

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an ethnographic method in which the ethnographer attempts to understand another culture through description and analysis of their when fieldwork experiance

auto ethnography

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a rule in anthropology ethics?

to ensure that research involving humans unfolds ethically a 'do not harm" principle

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the capacity to think and perceive in the categories of ones own culture as well as in the categories of a second culture

bicultural perspective

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the process of sharing information and knowledge through either language or some non-verbal system of meaning

communication

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a symbolic system of arbitrary sounds that, when put together according to a certain set of rules, convey meaning to its speakers

language

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a nonverbal form of communication that accompanies words and helps to convey their meaning as well as expressing the emotional state of the speaker

paralanguage

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a form of non-verbal communication that involves touch

haptic communication

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cultures in which communication is indirect, relying heavily on he context to convey meaning (and what countries)

high-context (Asia, Middle East, African countries)

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cultures in which communication is direct and unambiguous, where meaning is conveyed by the words themselves (and what countries?)

low-context cultures (Canada, US)

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language has a system 1________, 2_______, 3______

1. sounds 2. patterns, systematic nature

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study of language in relation to society - social uses of language

sociolinguistics

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language is fundamental to the creation an expression of social identity and differences

social identity

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speakers of 2 or more languages or varieties of one language switch between the 2, depending on the social contect

code switching

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a different language to speak at home vs at work is an example of ?

diglossia

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things that mark your speech, how people can tell where you are from

indexical

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the notion that a persons language shapes her or his perceptions and view of the world, and consequently their behaviour

sapir-Whorf hypothesis

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the gendered differences in language

genderlects

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criticism of Sapir-Whorf

not all activities involve language but do involve thought

115

pollution resulting from the large-scale use of automobiles in a country shows that culture can be ____

Maladaptive

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The perspective where mind and body, individual and society, and individual and environment interpenetrate is known as ____________

holism

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a central form of anthropology writing

ethnography