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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (50):

Have racial categorization been consistent through time?

No, this is a proof of social construction


What evidence is there that racism still exists in Canada?

Hate crime statistics in Canada (drop in 2009, upward trend since 2013) includes hate crimes that are racially driven (as well as religion/gender/ability/etc)


What are the three types of racism?

Individual racial prejudice/discrimination/violence, organized racism (KKK), institutional racism


What is identity?

the defining characteristic that makes something "what it is"; as a "thing" or a "process" (noun/verb)


What is social identity?

a signifier that distinguishes an individual based on a set of socially constructed characteristics


What is social categorization

grouping of individuals according to certain socio-cultural qualities


How are identities constructed?

Some identities are imposed on the individual by society or others in the community (socially-imposed) and there is the way the individual constructs and defines their own identity (self-identification)


How are the politics of identity constructed?

constructed through what we call bounded solidarity (solidarity within the group.. have to create boundary to reach solidarity)


What is intertextuality?

can think of the way in which certain identities (signifiers) are created in relation to other identities ... identity does not necessarily exist in isolation


What is essentialism?

belief that any given identity can be defined by a set of essential characteristics or qualities that shape what that person/thing is


What is biological essentialism?

views identity as inherent characteristics of a body or a set of bodies ... bodies have natural essences that define the core of who they are
- idea that material referent (body) determines the signifier (identity) ... ( semiotics approach)


What is social constructivism?

rejects the notion of a natural essence of an identity, rather looks at the way identities are constructed in relation to the body but there is an arbitrariness of the ways that identities get associated with bodies
- the type of signifier (identity) that is fixed to a referent (the body) is a result of contested power relations ... semiotics approach)


What is Sex?

(male/female), seen in biological attributes of sexual organs, sense of the body
biologically determined - is a binary


What is gender?

(masculine/ feminine) a binary, roles that one plays in society, HOWEVER, its a spectrum, many say are social construct.


Assumptions of gender and social norms?

- social norms within a society influence conceptions of "proper" gender relations
- women traditionally relegated to the 'private sphere' with men dominating the 'public space'


What were the years in Canada that women gained the right to vote?

Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan - 1916, Ontario & BC - 1917 (white). Federal elections in 1918. Other provinces in 1922, exception of Quebec in 1940


What/when was the first wave of feminism?

19th - early 10th century: right to vote


What/when was the second wave of feminism?

(1960-80), challenged gender norms of society, collectively to express their interests as a sex/gender, challenge women's place in the home


What/when was the third wave of feminism?

(1990- 2000), third world feminism, women of colour speaking out about second wave topics


Geography as a masculinist discipline?

dominated by men, studies prior to 1960's ignored questions of gender and women's experiences


What percentage is UVics geography faculty of women?

38.5%, which is above the national average however, 0.08% is women of race


What is essentialism and gender identity?

belief that gender roles are "natural" (biologically - determined), essentializing gendered spaces (washrooms/ olympics)


What is De-jure?

legal system can be used to maintain gender rolls through law


What is De-facto?

illegal action, violence


Summarize the Jennifer Mateer lecture.

ROs as symbols of modernization: collection must also be modernized; motor bikes and plastic containers
Changes to the gender performance of water: however no changes to gender-based equality within households
Shifts in Neoliberalism: Kent is successful under, but not for the average day to day person


What are the geographic critiques of adult-centric spaces?

- the adults provide plenty of places for their own amusements
- the teenagers have a whole secret geography of their own


Is age a biological fact

- social construct? life experience could say otherwise
- there is a point of everything breaking down and eventually dying - biological limits
- subject to historical and cultural processes, different meanings based from whos perspective and the peoples social, cultural and political circumstance


Stages of life?

when does childhood end and adulthood begin?
- society creates an order to have discrete phases but there is transitional period between each, the boundary is fuzzy


What is intersectionality

the ageing process is experienced differently depending on various other markers of social difference (race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, etc.)


What is intergenerationality

- the relations between generational groups
- an individuals social identity is partially based on the generation where they come from


What is the Life-course approach?

the study of different experiences that people encounter as they move through the course of their lives (youth -> young adult -> adult)


What is life world?

the perceptions and embodied experiences of individual situated in different life circumstances


What are elements of lifeworld

conceptions of self, family relations & friendships, school experiences, spaces of play , work


What was the convention of the Rights of the Child?

1989, basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; develop to the fullest; protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitations


What is the condition of betweenness (liminal space)

the transitional experience where and individual does not fit into established social categories


Geography of Religion

- analytical approach
- place making practices, how do diffrent religions have a place making effect


what is secularization

cultural transformation in which religious influences over governmental institutions and social life give way to non-religious forms of social organizations


What is a sacred space?

a place thats perceived by religious believers as a holy site often associated with the founder of a religious tradition or the location of religious services


What is the tourist gaze

particular way of seeing from the touristic experience
- increasingly sign posted


Tourism as development strategy

- government making decision
- consulting agencies playing a role
- various objects from various groups


Slum tourism

- exploitation of poverty?
- unequal power dynamic


Geographical connection and the online world

- geolocation
- neighbourhood identity
- marketing
- ethics: professional, commercial


What is hybridity?

all sorts of intermixture
actual world we live in


What is Jenkins circle of representation (tourism)

- reinforces of what image of the place is
- how does the social media era affect the model


What is the order of most popular religions?

Roman Catholic, Protestant, No religion, Muslim


What is a monotheistic religion?

Only one god exists - Islam


What is a polytheistic religion?

Multiple gods exist - Hindu


What is a Animistic religion?

All things are living


What is a secular religion?

Non belief in gods


What are the five pillars of Islam?

Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj