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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (60):

What are the key concepts in Cultural Geography?

space, place, and cultural landscape


What is place?

does not exist in the world but is actively constructed and (re)produced through socio-political practices
- enactment of social power
- social and political identity
- assertion of social and cultural identity
- produced through design and use


What is Agnew's definitions on place?

location: latitude and longitude
locale: material factors of the area urban, people, environment
sense of place: human perceptions


What are the elements of place? (Lynch)

Path, Edge, District, Nodes, Landmark


What is Space-Time Routine as "Space Ballet"

- time geography
- maps where people begin their day, combined with others
- places are created by the bundle of activities that occur and intersect


What are the components to Place-Identity?

- Physical Signage
- Boundary-making
- Spatial Narratives


What is Place Marketing?

the promotion of a particular image of place that selectively highlights its positive qualities in order to attract a target audience


What is Place Making?

the process through which the symbolic elements of "place" are produced as meaningful arenas of lived experience.
- can get community involvement, creative process of reclamation of space


What is Place-Making as Performative?

- place is a verb not a noun (always becoming)
- places are produced through a series of acts that articulate specific social norms
- repetition of acts, reinforces the place-identities


Summarize the Case Study: Salish Sea

- happened over 2 decades
- started 1988 (Bert Webber)
- July 2010 it was approved
- performative speech acts
- critics: forgetting the colonial name, the monarch
- pro: many commend the name changes


Summarize the Case Study: Reclaiming of Pkols

- formerly known as Mt. Douglas
- named originally from James Douglas
- happened through an embodied practice (marching up the mountain)
- Reclaimed May 2013


Summarize the Case Study: The Arabian or Persian Gulf

- 2004 National Geographic published world atlas
- claim of waterway between Iran and Saudi Arabia
- the map is the becoming and beginning of naming a place
- politics of the place


What are examples that make up culture?

Traditions, Language, Social Norms, Heritage, Customs, History, Agricultural Practices, Music, Art, Place-based identities, Medicine


The ___ and ____ practices that shape peoples every day lives.

The MATERIAL and SYMBOLIC practices that shape peoples everyday lives


What is material culture?

technologies, built environment, economic activites


What are symbolic practices?

language, worldview, values


What is material-symbolic dialectic?

the interrelations between the two material and symbolic practices


Components of the Representations/Materiality Dualism?

Cultural Representation: place identities that get constructed through maps, language, photography
Material World: exists outside, what is happening in the world
Interrelation: there is a feedback loop occuring


What are spaces of "concrete abstraction"?

can be both at the same time
- material symbolic space
e.g. food, money


Who was Rene Descartes?

- coordinate system
- archaeologies of materialized cartesian space
- the manhattan grid
whole field of non-euclidean geometry


Describe the landscape as Cultural Representation materialized?

- dominant cultural norms expressed in material form
- contesting "culture" through landscape and place-making: acts of 'renaming'


How do you interpret the cultural landscape?

- look beyond the appearance: social and environmental shifts
- looks can be deceiving: the distinction between 'natural and 'cultural' landscape
- dig deeper: history, images, objects
- requires cultural, economic, political and aesthetic evaluation


What are the Analytical Approaches to a Landscape?

describe: cultural traits of different groups
classify: groups based upon cultural differences
map: out geographical extent of cultural areas
analyze: patterns of cultural diffusion


What are the Interpretive Approaches to a Landscape?

Interpret: the symbolic meanings of cultural systems (linguistic/discourse/psychological)
Critique: the political and economic underpinnings of social hierarchies and inequalities


What are the 4 definitions of a Landscape?

1. a picture representing a view of natural inland scenery
2. the art of depicting such scenery
3. the landforms of a region in the aggregate (as whole)
4. a portion of territory that can be viewed from one time from one place


Describe the differences of the definitions of a landscape

1. is the lens
2. way of seeing, mode of representing the world, certain genre
3. talking about the actual topography, landforms - as a whole
4. linking the landforms as the way of seeing, a way of viewing, if no one is viewing then it doesn't exist


What is the ocularcentric world view?

- one way of seeing
- geographic space and place has primarily been seen as a vision of how you access truth
- underpinnings of modern culture


What is a soundmark?

a term derived from a landmark used in soundscape studies, refers to a community sound that is unique, or possesses qualities which make it specially regarded or noticed by the people


What are products of a lived experience (landscape beyond vision)?

- soundscape
- smellscape
- tactile/haptic landscape


What is environmental determinism?

factors that the soil or climate determines what sort of people rise in those locations
- vast generalizations


What is Vidal de le Blache? Possibilism?

yes the environment puts constraints of human activity, yet de le Blache argued human societies make choices to provide possibilities within their environment


Who was Carl Sauer?

- inspired by german geographical theory
- influenced an entire generation of human geographers in N.A.
- Sauers Model of the "Natural Landscape"
- "The cultural landscape is fashioned out a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape the result"


What is Sauers Model of the "natural landscape"

- factors over time turns to forms create and produce the natural landscape
- natural landscape is a medium that is factor of culture, that turns into the cultural landscape


What is Sequent Occupance?

coined by Derwent Whittlesey (1929)
- the occupation and transformation of the landscape by different cultural groups over the course of time


What is the Vernacular Landscape? (J.B. Jackson

the ordinary spaces in which people live out their daily lives
- emphasis on popular transitions in architecture, landscape, design, as opposed to an elitist focus on monumental architecture
- understanding culture by interpreting the landscape it creates


What is the Berkeley School Approach

Morphological Approach
- emphasis on material artifacts in cultural landscape
- patterns: the grid, radial, curvilinear, organic, hybrid


What are some critiques of the Berkeley School?

- morphological analysis tends to offer a very "static" view of cultural landscapes
- not dynamic, static discussions of geometery
- superficial, overemphasis on MATERIAL ARTIFACTS
- landscape FORMS are created and sustained through social PROCESSES (both visible and invisible)


What is signification?

a relational process
- to understand the meaning of one sign, you must understand how it relates to other signs within a network of signs


What is Semiotics?

- the process of signification
- elements of a sign (what is a sign, what is it composed of)
- position of the sign in the system of signs


What is Charles Sander Peirce's Version of the Semiotic Triangle?

representation of itself is the "sign vehicle"
- it has a certain meaning which is the sense - the object being represented is the referent.


Describe the Semiotic Triangle (de Saussure)

Signifier, Signified, Referent
1st order: word
2nd order: idea/concept
3rd order: material object itself
(2nd order: take further and making the referent a signifier for something more than just linguistic)


What are Landscapes a signifying system?

- composed of multiple sign systems (physical signs)
- signs within the landscape vs. the landscape as "sign"
- landscape as signifier of power relations in a society


What is the materialist approach to landscape?

- taking the metaphor to its logical conlusion: texts are commodities (bought and sold)
- landscape as a product of the labour/capital dialectic: whos labour produced the landscape, social status influence?


What is defensive architecture?

the element of the landscape in text
- airport comfort, benches with railings deterring people to sleep, people sleep on the ground


Summarize Graffiti Wars Movie

- Graffiti vs. Street Art
- Robbo vs. Banksy
- legal vs. illegal
- value in street art, rules of the graffiti world


What is culture jamming?

a strategy that turns corporate power against itself by co-opting, hacking, mocking etc.


What is the situationist movement?

- founded in Italy (1957)
- promoted the use of art as a form of political action
- used of urban space to create "situations" of counter-hegemonic activity to challenge the "society of the spectacle"
-Guy Divore?


Case Study: Billboard Liberation Front

- San Fransisco 1977
- subverts commercial billboards with anticorporate messages (subvertizement)
- began targeting cigarette companies first


Types of Graffiti

Tag, Throw-up, Wild Style, Piece, Slash, Blockbuster


What are the aims of Graffiti?

claiming space, territorial marker, expression of racism, sexism, homophobia et.c, political/ideological statement


What is Latrinalia?

washroom graffiti, coined by Alan Dundes (1966)


What is public art?

original artwork selected, commissioned, created or donated for location in the public domain
- largely bland, unprovocative art that offers no critical disruption or artisitic risk/challenge


Where does public art fall into the public domain?

public-public spaces & private-pubic spaces


What are the public art policies?

1959: 1st percent-for-art adopted in Philadelphia
1980-90's: percent-for-art policies are widely adopted across N.A. and beyond


What is the Berkeley school approach to architecture?

(architectural formalism)
- basic unit of the built environment
- emphasis on architectural styles (elements of a house, simple and compound plans, roof shape & pitch, architectural styles


What is the semiotic approach to architecture?

building viewed as a signifier of a vision of society
- focus on the stories, narratives, and discourses associated with particular architectural design


Neo-materialist approach: Political economy Theory

-emphasis on the role of economic power, property relations, and the circulation of capital in the built environment
buildings: product of commodity production, funded by investors
materiality: economic sphere, how it shapes peoples lives


Neo-materialist approach: Non-representational Theory

-emphasis on the lived experiences of everyday life for the inhabitants of a place (phenomenology)
-human experiences
materiality: the body as a material thing, perceived through individual bodies


What are the spatial dimensions of class segregation?

political economy: structural inequality materialized in the landscape
non-representational theory: what is it actually like to live in such built environments on a daily basis


What are the main types of roofs?

gabled (front or side & hipped (pyramidal structure)