Flashcards in Midterm Deck (60):
What are the key concepts in Cultural Geography?
space, place, and cultural landscape
What is place?
does not exist in the world but is actively constructed and (re)produced through socio-political practices
- enactment of social power
- social and political identity
- assertion of social and cultural identity
- produced through design and use
What is Agnew's definitions on place?
location: latitude and longitude
locale: material factors of the area urban, people, environment
sense of place: human perceptions
What are the elements of place? (Lynch)
Path, Edge, District, Nodes, Landmark
What is Space-Time Routine as "Space Ballet"
- time geography
- maps where people begin their day, combined with others
- places are created by the bundle of activities that occur and intersect
What are the components to Place-Identity?
- Physical Signage
- Spatial Narratives
What is Place Marketing?
the promotion of a particular image of place that selectively highlights its positive qualities in order to attract a target audience
What is Place Making?
the process through which the symbolic elements of "place" are produced as meaningful arenas of lived experience.
- can get community involvement, creative process of reclamation of space
What is Place-Making as Performative?
- place is a verb not a noun (always becoming)
- places are produced through a series of acts that articulate specific social norms
- repetition of acts, reinforces the place-identities
Summarize the Case Study: Salish Sea
- happened over 2 decades
- started 1988 (Bert Webber)
- July 2010 it was approved
- performative speech acts
- critics: forgetting the colonial name, the monarch
- pro: many commend the name changes
Summarize the Case Study: Reclaiming of Pkols
- formerly known as Mt. Douglas
- named originally from James Douglas
- happened through an embodied practice (marching up the mountain)
- Reclaimed May 2013
Summarize the Case Study: The Arabian or Persian Gulf
- 2004 National Geographic published world atlas
- claim of waterway between Iran and Saudi Arabia
- the map is the becoming and beginning of naming a place
- politics of the place
What are examples that make up culture?
Traditions, Language, Social Norms, Heritage, Customs, History, Agricultural Practices, Music, Art, Place-based identities, Medicine
The ___ and ____ practices that shape peoples every day lives.
The MATERIAL and SYMBOLIC practices that shape peoples everyday lives
What is material culture?
technologies, built environment, economic activites
What are symbolic practices?
language, worldview, values
What is material-symbolic dialectic?
the interrelations between the two material and symbolic practices
Components of the Representations/Materiality Dualism?
Cultural Representation: place identities that get constructed through maps, language, photography
Material World: exists outside, what is happening in the world
Interrelation: there is a feedback loop occuring
What are spaces of "concrete abstraction"?
can be both at the same time
- material symbolic space
e.g. food, money
Who was Rene Descartes?
- coordinate system
- archaeologies of materialized cartesian space
- the manhattan grid
whole field of non-euclidean geometry
Describe the landscape as Cultural Representation materialized?
- dominant cultural norms expressed in material form
- contesting "culture" through landscape and place-making: acts of 'renaming'
How do you interpret the cultural landscape?
- look beyond the appearance: social and environmental shifts
- looks can be deceiving: the distinction between 'natural and 'cultural' landscape
- dig deeper: history, images, objects
- requires cultural, economic, political and aesthetic evaluation
What are the Analytical Approaches to a Landscape?
describe: cultural traits of different groups
classify: groups based upon cultural differences
map: out geographical extent of cultural areas
analyze: patterns of cultural diffusion
What are the Interpretive Approaches to a Landscape?
Interpret: the symbolic meanings of cultural systems (linguistic/discourse/psychological)
Critique: the political and economic underpinnings of social hierarchies and inequalities
What are the 4 definitions of a Landscape?
1. a picture representing a view of natural inland scenery
2. the art of depicting such scenery
3. the landforms of a region in the aggregate (as whole)
4. a portion of territory that can be viewed from one time from one place
Describe the differences of the definitions of a landscape
1. is the lens
2. way of seeing, mode of representing the world, certain genre
3. talking about the actual topography, landforms - as a whole
4. linking the landforms as the way of seeing, a way of viewing, if no one is viewing then it doesn't exist
What is the ocularcentric world view?
- one way of seeing
- geographic space and place has primarily been seen as a vision of how you access truth
- underpinnings of modern culture
What is a soundmark?
a term derived from a landmark used in soundscape studies, refers to a community sound that is unique, or possesses qualities which make it specially regarded or noticed by the people
What are products of a lived experience (landscape beyond vision)?
- tactile/haptic landscape
What is environmental determinism?
factors that the soil or climate determines what sort of people rise in those locations
- vast generalizations
What is Vidal de le Blache? Possibilism?
yes the environment puts constraints of human activity, yet de le Blache argued human societies make choices to provide possibilities within their environment
Who was Carl Sauer?
- inspired by german geographical theory
- influenced an entire generation of human geographers in N.A.
- Sauers Model of the "Natural Landscape"
- "The cultural landscape is fashioned out a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape the result"
What is Sauers Model of the "natural landscape"
- factors over time turns to forms create and produce the natural landscape
- natural landscape is a medium that is factor of culture, that turns into the cultural landscape
What is Sequent Occupance?
coined by Derwent Whittlesey (1929)
- the occupation and transformation of the landscape by different cultural groups over the course of time
What is the Vernacular Landscape? (J.B. Jackson
the ordinary spaces in which people live out their daily lives
- emphasis on popular transitions in architecture, landscape, design, as opposed to an elitist focus on monumental architecture
- understanding culture by interpreting the landscape it creates
What is the Berkeley School Approach
- emphasis on material artifacts in cultural landscape
- patterns: the grid, radial, curvilinear, organic, hybrid
What are some critiques of the Berkeley School?
- morphological analysis tends to offer a very "static" view of cultural landscapes
- not dynamic, static discussions of geometery
- superficial, overemphasis on MATERIAL ARTIFACTS
- landscape FORMS are created and sustained through social PROCESSES (both visible and invisible)
What is signification?
a relational process
- to understand the meaning of one sign, you must understand how it relates to other signs within a network of signs
What is Semiotics?
- the process of signification
- elements of a sign (what is a sign, what is it composed of)
- position of the sign in the system of signs
What is Charles Sander Peirce's Version of the Semiotic Triangle?
representation of itself is the "sign vehicle"
- it has a certain meaning which is the sense - the object being represented is the referent.
Describe the Semiotic Triangle (de Saussure)
Signifier, Signified, Referent
1st order: word
2nd order: idea/concept
3rd order: material object itself
(2nd order: take further and making the referent a signifier for something more than just linguistic)
What are Landscapes a signifying system?
- composed of multiple sign systems (physical signs)
- signs within the landscape vs. the landscape as "sign"
- landscape as signifier of power relations in a society
What is the materialist approach to landscape?
- taking the metaphor to its logical conlusion: texts are commodities (bought and sold)
- landscape as a product of the labour/capital dialectic: whos labour produced the landscape, social status influence?
What is defensive architecture?
the element of the landscape in text
- airport comfort, benches with railings deterring people to sleep, people sleep on the ground
Summarize Graffiti Wars Movie
- Graffiti vs. Street Art
- Robbo vs. Banksy
- legal vs. illegal
- value in street art, rules of the graffiti world
What is culture jamming?
a strategy that turns corporate power against itself by co-opting, hacking, mocking etc.
What is the situationist movement?
- founded in Italy (1957)
- promoted the use of art as a form of political action
- used of urban space to create "situations" of counter-hegemonic activity to challenge the "society of the spectacle"
Case Study: Billboard Liberation Front
- San Fransisco 1977
- subverts commercial billboards with anticorporate messages (subvertizement)
- began targeting cigarette companies first
Types of Graffiti
Tag, Throw-up, Wild Style, Piece, Slash, Blockbuster
What are the aims of Graffiti?
claiming space, territorial marker, expression of racism, sexism, homophobia et.c, political/ideological statement
What is Latrinalia?
washroom graffiti, coined by Alan Dundes (1966)
What is public art?
original artwork selected, commissioned, created or donated for location in the public domain
- largely bland, unprovocative art that offers no critical disruption or artisitic risk/challenge
Where does public art fall into the public domain?
public-public spaces & private-pubic spaces
What are the public art policies?
1959: 1st percent-for-art adopted in Philadelphia
1980-90's: percent-for-art policies are widely adopted across N.A. and beyond
What is the Berkeley school approach to architecture?
- basic unit of the built environment
- emphasis on architectural styles (elements of a house, simple and compound plans, roof shape & pitch, architectural styles
What is the semiotic approach to architecture?
building viewed as a signifier of a vision of society
- focus on the stories, narratives, and discourses associated with particular architectural design
Neo-materialist approach: Political economy Theory
-emphasis on the role of economic power, property relations, and the circulation of capital in the built environment
buildings: product of commodity production, funded by investors
materiality: economic sphere, how it shapes peoples lives
Neo-materialist approach: Non-representational Theory
-emphasis on the lived experiences of everyday life for the inhabitants of a place (phenomenology)
materiality: the body as a material thing, perceived through individual bodies
What are the spatial dimensions of class segregation?
political economy: structural inequality materialized in the landscape
non-representational theory: what is it actually like to live in such built environments on a daily basis