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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (66):
1

What are the 3 levels of prevention? What are they?

-primary is prevention of INITIAL occurrence of disease or injury
-secondary is EARLY identification and TREATMENT of disease or injury to limit disability
-tertiary MAXIMIZES recovery AFTER an injury or illness

2

What is acute care?

provided in hospital settings

3

What is community based care?

-ambulatory care
-surgical centers
-clinics
-dr. offices
-home

4

what is community health nursing?

-defined by philosophy of practice
-family centered care
-a nursing specialty like OB

5

what does clinical judgment include?

-holistic approach
-noticing, interpreting, responding, and reflecting

6

what are the four main factors that affect blood pressure?

-peripheral resistance
-vessel elasticity
-blood volume
-cardiac output

7

what can negatively affect your blood pressure?

-lack of exercise
-consuming too much alcohol
-smoking
-long term chronic stress

8

what is orthostatic hypertension?

the fall in blood pressure when a person stands

9

what are the four categories of infection?

-parasitic
-fungal
-bacterial
-viral

10

what is the infectious process?

-incubation period
-prodromal stage
-illness stage
-convalescence

11

what is the chain of infection?

-pathogen
-susceptible host
-reservoir
-portal of exit from reservoir
-mode of transportation
-portal of entry to susceptible host

12

what populations are at greatest risk for infection?

-very young
-poor
-uninsured
-residents of areas with prevalent infection

13

what are the principles of surgical asepsis?

-A sterile object remains sterile only when touched by another sterile object
-Only sterile objects may be placed on a sterile field
-A sterile object or field out of range of vision or an object held below a person's waist is contaminated
-A sterile object or fields become contaminated by prolonged exposure to air
-Sterile surface comes in contact with a wet, contaminated surface, the sterile object or field becomes contaminated by papillary action
-Fluid flows in the direction of gravity
-Edges of sterile field or container are considered contaminated

14

what is the order of donning?

hand hygiene, gown, mask, eyewear, gloves

15

what is the order of doffing?

gloves, eyewear, gown, mask, hand hygiene

16

what is the nursing process?

-assessment
-diagnosis
-planning
-implementation
-elavuation

17

how do you write an actual nursing diagnosis?

diagnosis r/t etiology AMB s/s

18

what do you do if you make a mistake while documenting?

draw one line through it, initial, and date it

19

what is the only thing that you can document in?

black ink

20

1 kg = how many lbs

2.2 lbs

21

is this a correct test question answer? .75 cm

-no
-should have a 0 in front
-0.75 cm

22

milligrams to micrograms to grams

1 gram = 1,000 mg = 1,000,000 mcg

23

teaspoons to mL

1 tsp = 5 mL

24

tablespoons to mL

1 T = 15 mL

25

teaspoons to tablespoons

3 tsp = 1 T

26

cups to ounces to milliliters

1 cup = 8 oz = 240 mL

27

The order is for 50 mg. The pharmacy sends 25 mg tablets. How many will the nurse give?

2 tablets

28

The order is for 1.2 gram. The pharmacy sends 0.4 gram tablets. How many tablets will the nurse give?

3 tablets

29

what are BADLs?

basic activities of daily living

30

what are IADLs?

instrumental activities of daily living

31

what is QSEN?

quality and safety education for nurses to minimize the risk of harm to patients and providers

32

what is the most important way to prevent the spread of disease?

hand washing

33

what is the 8th leading cause of death?

medication errors

34

what does RACE stand for?

rescue, alarm, confine, and extinguish

35

what does PASS stand for?

pull, aim, squeeze, and spray

36

how long is the sleep cycle?

90 to 100 minutes

37

what is shear?

-when a patient slides down in bed
-caused by friction

38

how often do you turn someone that is on bed rest?

q 2 hrs

39

what is constipation? diarrhea? flatulence? impaction? incontinence?

-hard, dry, small stools
-several times as liquid
-excessive painful gas
-extreme constipation
-inability to control passage of feces and urine

40

what are hemorrhoids?

dilated engorged veins in the lining of the rectum

41

what is the most common HAI? what is it caused by?

-UTIs
-catheterizations

42

what is urinary retention? stress incontinence? urge incontinence? transient?

-accumulation of urine due to the inability to empty bladder
-sneezing and coughing causes urine to leak out
-all of a sudden you have a strong urge to urinate
- an acute incontinence that comes and goes

43

what is culture? ethnicity? race?

-learned and provides direction for decisions and actions
-a group of people based off of their heritage
-biological attributes

44

what is an example of enculturation?

transfer student from another country learning norms of America

45

what is an example of acculturation?

immigrant from China develops a love for western foods and music

46

ethnocentrism example?

white supremacy

47

what is the gate control theory of pain?

that pain has emotional and cognitive components as well as physical

48

acute pain

new onset with cause

49

chronic pain

-slow onset without cause
-longer than 3 months

50

what are the side effects of opioids?

-constipation
-nausea
-vomiting
-urinary retention
-altered renal function
-itch/rash
-dry mouth
-respiratory depression

51

what is Lewin's change model?

-unfreezing is to create an awareness of the changes that needs to be made
-changing is to make the change
-refreezing is to solidify the changes

52

what is healthy people 2020's and what does it do?

-health promotion and disease prevention strategy for the nation
-guide individuals toward making informed health decisions
-measure the impact of prevention activities

53

what are the overarching goals of healthy people 2020?

-Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.
-Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
-Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
-Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.

54

what is a health promotion?

-used to make an already well person feel better
-example is eye glasses

55

What is primary care?

preventative care

56

what is secondary and tertiary care?

-acute care
-diagnosis and treatment

57

what is restorative care? what are 3 types?

-serves patients recovering from an acute or chronic illness/disability
-home care
-rehabilitation
-extended care in a facility like a rehab facility or nursing facility

58

what is assisted living?

-a long term care setting with a home environment
-services include laundry, meals, personal care, housekeeping, and 24 hour oversight
-allows residents to live in their own units

59

what is respite care?

-provides a short term relief for persons providing home care to an ill older adult
-settings can be home, day care, or health care instituition
-trained volunteers allow family caregivers to leave the home to run errands or social time

60

what is an adult day care center?

--provide health and social services to populations who live in the community
-services can include daily physical rehabilitation and counseling

61

what is hospice?

-focuses on palliative care
-can be provided at home, in a homelike setting, or hospital
-during terminal illness and time of death

62

what is palliative care?

-not curative
-comfort, independence, and dignity

63

stereotypes of older adults?

-ill, disabled, and unattractive
-forgetful, confused, boring
-unable to learn new things
-not interested in sex

64

developmental tasks for older adults?

-death of friends and family
-retirement and reduced or fixed income
-changes in quality of life or living arrangements
-failing health

65

what is delirium? dementia? depression?

-acute confusional state
-generalized impairment of intellectual functioning
-a mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness and despair

66

what impact does technology have on nursing?

-it does not take the place of sound personal judgment