Flashcards in Final Deck (65):
A Belgian philosopher who had been a leader in the Jewish resistance before and during WWII
As a professor he had been asked to resign his position once Hitler invaded Belgium, but he refused. He was forced to stop teaching classes
He was responsible for rescuing thousands of Jews from the Nazis
He was convinced that the survival of Western Civilization depended on rational discourse about values. Brings back Aristotle's idea of the centrality of the audience - "knowledge of those one wished to win over is a condition preliminary to all effectual argumentation."
Identified three types of audiences (centrality of audience) that are important to persuasion along with Perelman
Madama L. Olbrechts-Tyteca
Born in Germany in 1929. He was growing up as Hitler was coming into power. He described his father as a Nazi sympathizer. As an intellectual, he was concerned about the failures of German intellectuals to see what was happening in Germany and to provide any meaningful opposition to it. He saw Marxist ideology as a way to overcome political corruption, criminality, and class warfare.
He challenged positivists' beliefs that their work wasn't rhetorical (didn't involve argumentation or persuasion), one of science's very own, began his academic career as a physicist, but later became interested in the history of science and then the philosophy of science
He argued that science was marked by long periods of stability, but major changes in thinking and/or research were the products of scientific revolutions. His description of scientific revolutions caught the attention of social scientists as well as humanities scholars as an apt description of the ways in which knowledge advances.
He argued that the adaptation of "natural selection" for Darwin was a conscious attempt to influence (persuade) his readers
He was probably the most influential 20th century rhetorician. He wrote poetry, & fiction, but was most known for his work on the philosophy of rhetoric. He became the editor of a literary magazine, the Dial, where he began to write literary and rhetorical theory and criticism.
He argues that rhetoric is a form of action; it is our most human activity and our best hope for avoiding self-destruction. Rhetoric can either further alienate us, or bring us together.
In 1968, he published an article arguing that public rhetoric obtained it's rhetorical character from the situation that produced it.
He saw: Discourse as ideological. Language does not merely reflect an objective world, humans use it to construct our realities. To speak is to articulate a position
Discourse as dialogue. Discourse is inherently social or dialogic. Presupposes a reciprocal relationship between speaker and listener
Discourse as politics. Language is a site of political struggle as we each seek to infuse language with our own intentions
German philosopher who had begun to question Enlightenment assumptions and thus provided the seeds of a new or "postmodern" system of thought. He attacked the grand explanatory narratives of Christianity and Judaism, and strongly opposed all overarching philosophical frameworks. He said: Morality and social principles are relative and serve the "will to power"
He focused on the "central problem of power"
Was interested in the relationship between power and language. Power is not the result of decisions or actions, but the result of the ways in which language is used. How does power install itself and produce real material effects in and on society? Discourse or language is part of the production of power. It does not just portray reality, it creates it. Power is a matter of which ideas prevail at the moment.
He articulated a way of reading texts called Deconstruction. Language, especially, written language cannot escape the built-in biases of the cultural history that produced it. Language is a system of relations and oppositions. Meaning is always "in play." Oppositions are always embedded into discourse.
Wrote The Art of Persuasion in Greece, believed that "some of the Greek love of speech and argumentation is probably derived from a feeling that oratory is a contest in which man exhibits something of his manliness." Thus oratory was a kind of battle using words rather than swords, one in which one man sought to defeat another by a skill that drew applause rather than blood
is made up of all rationale humans. It's an imaginary audience. A way to test the rationality of an argument is by imagining how it would be responded to by a group of highly rational individuals
In legal discourse it is embodied in the "ideal of the rational individual" in terms of the law
What is reasonable must be able to be a precedent that can inspire everyone
the actual audience addressed in a speech, writing, or discourse
hold particular opinions and values
by testing arguments and counter-arguments as a way to produce clarification (e.g. devil's advocate)
Audience of One
A persuader needs to make abstract or unknown ideas "present" to the audience
The idea that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge becomes dominant, produces "hard sciences" such as: Physics, Chemistry,Biology
It was truth seeking and therefore non rhetorical
Scientific truth is scientific truth—no need for persuasion. Rhetoric, to this way of thinking, would be a means used to chiefly obscure truth
A place of discussion among individuals unrestrained by the dominating influence of political systems and the interests of the state, and where ideas of interest to everyone are discussed and refined
For Bakhtin, all discourse is inherently ideological in two senses: language does not merely reflect an objective world, rather words participate in constructing that world as well, second to speak is to articulate a position; when we speak or write we give voice to our own system of beliefs
The systematic analysis of discourse that reveals its hidden assumptions and implications
False ideologies lead to false thinking
The goal is a life free from unnecessary domination
In Habermas, the particular conditions under which rational communication is possible
Critical argumentation was the key to overcoming ideological domination
The interaction of at least two people who establish a relationship and who try to come to a common understanding of the situation in which they are acting through interpretation
Reason has a healing power of unification and reconciliation
One of the most useful concepts Burke has given us: "You persuade a man only insofar as you can talk his language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, idea, identifying your ways with his." BLANK is the way to try to rhetorically bridge that divide that mystery creates.
For Burke, "BLANK" was a better rhetorical term than "persuasion" because it more accurately focuses attention on the grounds or substance of the agreement.
Symbols are the essence of our existence
"If any given terminology is a reflection of reality, , by it's very nature as a terminology it must be a selection of reality; and to this extent it must also function as a deflection of reality." Every set of terms of symbols becomes a screen through which we see the world.
Burke hoped the power of rhetoric could be used to move human toward cooperation and ultimately, peace. Rhetoric helps us to understand the most fundamental elements of human existence:
The means by which we define ourselves and our communities; the nature of meaning as a matter of interpreting symbols; human motivation and action
Rhetoric is a symbolic means of inducing cooperation.
Ad Bellum Purificandum
We train ourselves to look at the world and communication about the world through different terministic screens. . .It is important not just to understand what we open ourselves to in terms of the terministic screens we use to define our world, but that we also are aware of what we close ourselves to- these are BLANK
An imperfection marked by urgency
Those who are capable of taking action to resolve the exigence
Any factors that set a practical; limit for a rhetorician
A rhetorical situation dictates the BLANK
The many languages present in a culture or society
The univocal, fixed meaning of the state or official language
All voices are not valued equally in cultures
For Bakhtin, the novel becomes a BLANK demonstration of language where all of the voices of the characters tell their stories
In being identified with B, A is "substantially one" with a person other than himself. Yet at the same time he remains unique, an individual locus of motives. Thus he is both joined and separate, at once a distinct substance and consubstantial with another.
Kenneth Burke's definition of rhetoric; garnering cooperation by the strategic use of symbols
The idea that there is a basic mystery to humans about any other human, gender, race, culture, nationality, etc.
We can only know what it is like to be ourselves, everyone else is, at some level, a mystery to us
BLANK is the root of our alienation or separation
A culture's collective discourse, or the record of what could and could not be said in a culture, functions as an archeological artifact
To study knowledge is to peel back the layers of different time periods to study the rules in place or a particular society at a particular time
Knowledge is a product of what can be discussed and how. It's as important to understand what can't be talked about or said during a time period as it is to understand what can and was said
Archeology of Knowledge
A way of reading texts seeks to:
reveal the hidden mechanisms at work influencing meaning, demonstrate the concealed power of symbols to shape thinking, underline the fact that no one escapes these elusive qualities of language
Seeks to " move the author out of the way" as opposed to the rhetorical tradition, which elevates the rhetor as the one in control of all the meanings. BLANK undermines the modernist project of establishing the supremacy of rationality
Challenges meta-narratives, or grand explanatory schemes such as Christianity or capitalism that claim to account for the entirety of human history and the human condition.
Asks questions about the nature of reality
Questions our most closely held assumptions about good/evil, right/wrong, truth/falsehood, etc.
Rejects the search for a singular truth
Morality and social principles are relative and serve the "will to power" (Nietzsche)
Plato's term for true knowledge
African: initiation rite and speech in the form of a story (12,000 verses)
travelling persuaders (Ancient China)
disputation (Ancient China)
persuasion (Ancient China)
Foucalt's term for discourse that is controlled by being prohibited and such prohibitions always govern our knowledge of the world. Of course, only that which can be discussed can be known for we cannot know something that cannot be expressed.
In Foss and Griffin, a rhetoric that does not require or assume intent to persuade
His emphasis on critical theory and rationality fails to take into account much of human nature, especially human emotions. His philosophy seeks to "purify" discourse to exclude everything but rationality (e.g. emotions, values, attitudes, etc.) His theory concentrated on inequality mostly as a matter of economic inequality and doesn't encompass other sources of inequality such as race and gender.
Habermas on rationality
A functional and just society rotted in Western philosophy and guided by Marxist analysis of Social Justice
No area of human endeavor is rationally pure (free from ideology)
A rational society involves liberated individuals speaking to one another as equals
Forces of oppression must be overcome for pure rationality to flourish
Ideal Speech Community
Thomas Kuhn's book: In 1962 he published a book in which he argued that science was marked by revolutions, just like nations or cultures were and that these periods of intense revolution are inherently rhetorical. Generally scientific research is carried out as part of "normal science" or long periods in which most research is devoted to solving puzzles presented by the dominant paradigm: A paradigm is a way of thinking about the world. The scientists defending the old paradigm are usually older scientists who have made a career out of doing research under the old paradigm. The proponents of the new paradigm are usually younger scientists who are open to new ways of thinking about the world and the problems of science. Generally, it takes a "generation" for a new paradigm to fully take hold and settle into a normal science paradigm. The "war" between the old and new paradigms is highly rhetorical as proponents of each paradigm argue for the supremacy of their way of looking at the world and solving the problems of science.
The structure of scientific revolutions
The very act of publishing scientific discovery or research is a rhetorical act—designed to persuade of its legitimacy, it's relevance, and its accuracy. (John Campbell)
Rhetoric of Science
A way of analyzing discourse to determine human motives: Act- what is done or being done
Scene - the setting where the action takes place
Agent - the person performing the act
Agency - the means by which the agent performs the act
Purpose - the reason for the action
Attitude - the state of mind of the agent
Burke's Dramatistic Period
Defined by three elements: Exigence, Audience, Constraint; dictates the "fitting response"
The Rhetorical Situation
Humans as story telling animals
Jonathan Gottschall: The Storytelling Animal
From the time humans began communicating we have been storytelling animals
Humans rely less on logos (rationality) to describe, comprehend, and impact their world and more on mythos (narrative)
All of the ways humans tell stories function rhetorically
Rhetoric as narrative
Visual displays function to communicate messages on:
Women have not generally been part of defining the rhetorical tradition in Western Civilization
Women's experiences tend to be different than men's experiences
Women's voices are often not heard in language (or at least not until fairly recently in history)
As studies of discourse have focused on language as a form of power, it makes sense that feminist scholars would concentrate on the ways in which language has traditionally excluded women from power structures. For many feminist thinkers that exclusion, that silence is a form of violence or oppression
Feminist criticism and theory
Feminist criticism and theory is not simply about adding women's voices to the rhetorical tradition, What does it mean to consider gender in rhetorical theory and criticism? Constructing gender rhetorically:
Exposing the "masculinity" of traditional conceptualizations of rhetoric
Arguing for a "feminine" conceptualization of rhetoric
Reconceptualization of Rhetoric
Textual deconstruction is not just useful for feminists but for all oppressed groups to expose privilege
Racial & ethnic minorities
Individuals with disabilities
Individuals with mental impairments
Rhetoric as invitation
Bagre - initiation rite and speech in the form of a story (12,000 verses)
Lo Dagaas- people of northern Ghana
The speech belongs to the individual
The story belongs to the tribe or community
African rhetorical forms
Highly developed epideictic oratory
Focus on understanding the mind of the person one is seeking to persuade
Private speaking—persuasion is more private than public
Intrigues of the Warring States 3rd-1st Centuries BCE
Rhetorical manual much like those of the sophists in Ancient Greece
Teaching narratives - stories designed to convey lessons on speaking
Emphasis on rhetorical devices
Rhetoric in Ancient China
Focused on the meanings of symbols as fixed and the ability to learn and understand the world through direct observation (science)
Late 19th, 20th and 21st century thinkers have challenged beliefs that rationality and objectivity = truth, or at least reality.
Two intellectual movements in particular:
Alternatives to Western approaches to the understanding of rhetoric also challenge tradition assumptions:
The Modern Era
A way of understanding the use of symbols in the world.
Kenneth Burke: Rhetoric as Symbolic Action
Lloyd Bitzer: The Rhetorical Situation
Rhetoric and Narration
In addition to post-WWII rhetorical scholars grappling with issues of logic and argumentation, other contemporary scholars focused on how it is we construct our realities through the use of symbols.
Kenneth Burke was among the foremost of these thinkers
The Contemporary Era
During the "Age of Reason," science was elevated to the preferred way of knowing about humans and about the world in which we live
As rhetoric was being marginalized as style and delivery, science was gaining ascendancy as the true means of producing knowledge
The 20th century in the US and Europe brought about significant changes in the importance of training and education in rhetoric. Science and the social sciences became the preferred means for solving problems humans encountered throughout the world. The application of "science" to solving of social problems was at first enticing. Human problems such as poverty, hunger, illness, homelessness, it was believed, could all be solved scientifically. During the early part of the 20th century, as the sciences dominated the study of rhetoric took a back seat in education. However, after WWII, rhetoric (persuasion, argumentation) becomes important again as a way to resolve disagreements without destroying each other
Influence of WWII & its aftermath on theories of rhetoric and discourse