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Flashcards in Final Deck (83):
1

How has the increasing size, diversity, and structural complexity of society changed societal reliance on interpersonal (e.g., face-to-face communication) versus mass communication? How has social structure changed over history/time?


Less reliance on interpersonal, greater reliance on mass communication

2

What is feedback control?

Feedback control is a story that covers a social issue. Address problem or unstable social situation

3

What is disribution control?

Distribution control is when the media withholds information. when they don’t want to report internal social issues but want to report against outside interferences (lacking distribution

4

What is the protest paradigm? Can you provide specific examples of the protest paradigm?


Attention to appearance and behavior of protestors and show how they’re different from social norm

5

What is convergence?

Integration on mass media, computers, and telecommunications. (different types of media combining together in the information society)


6

What’s the role of digitization in helping to drive convergence? 


Digitalization transfers text into a computer readable format which is changing the way people communicate today

7

What are affordances?

are the technical features in the communication channels that allow users to have interpersonal communication like tweeting, or liking a post.


8

What is narrowcasting?


Targeting content to a smaller audience. This enhances the enrichment of the audiences experiences. Narrowcasting targets different lifestyles, needs, sex, age, or race

9

Net neutrality

Principle that users should not be discriminated against who uses the internet and in what way. Trying to not favor content to their business and charging their competition more

10

What is convergence?

Experience the same story in different ways and also get audience feedback. Print news doing more things online (trying to compete with competition)

11

Direct sales

consumers pay money to own products (ex. IPad)


12

Rentals

Direct payment for product borrowing

13

Payment for continuing service

Subscriptions

14

Admission to movies or theater or paper view

Usage fees

15

But commercial times, or page space

Advertising

16

Rental of content to different channels

Syndication

17

Compensate the creators of media content

License fees

18

Desirable/ educational but not profitable

Subsidies

19

Corporations, foundations,

Voluntary donations

20

What is technological determinism and how does it relate to the printing press, spread of literacy and democracy?

Society’s technology determines the development of social structure and cultural values. But also social political movements that were happening around that time

21

Agenda setting

first level: the more the media covers the more people think of it
Second level: more coverage of attributes the more that someone will have an opinion or those attributes

22

Hypodermic needle theory of media effects:

powerful direct effect in society bc of media (WWII propaganda) power to sway minds and be convincing

23

The Bobo Doll experiment was used to illustrate which media theory:


Classical Conditioning; Social learning theory (following behaviors) reward, punishment



24

What are the branches of government and what roles do they play in media regulation?

Legislative: standards of the industry) laws that empower excutive,
Excutive: enforce
Judicial: fairness doctrine

25

Marketplace of ideas

philosophy where “society works as a market plane” Protects free speech, bad ideas will go away (not to restrict speech)

26

First amendment

Freedom of speech and press. Privacy, intellectual property, ownership

27

Prior restraints

Bans restraints even if libelous and harmful. Journalist aren’t licensed

28

What types of speech receive more or less communication under the First Amendment (political v. commercial), including which types receive no protection?

Political speech has the most protection (anything that expresses viewpoint on issues)
Commercial speech is less protected, law has more function because it’s advertising intentions trying to gain profit


29

Censored American press?

Yes in pentagon papers

30

What is libel? What is the difference in what public versus non-public figures have to establish in order to pursue a successful libel claim

libel is written, fixed in broadcasting, tape, paper, or websites.
Non public Figures need to claim wrong and material damage
Public figures have to prove actual malice(known or should have know that the statement was untrue) false and went ahead anyway

31

1998 copyright term extension act

Protects from life to 70 years

32

Trademark

is language that is used to sell or identify brand (slogan/emblems).

33

Copy rights

Protect ideas that are in a fixed medium (music)

34

Patents

Protect inventions (Apple)

35

Who has ultimate authority to regulate communication?

US Congress

36

FEderal communication committee

Give and enforce laws

37

Federal trade commission

Advertising regulation

38

Federal elections committee (FEC)

Political (electoral)

39

Voluntary systems of regulation

Film and video games

40

Rebuild credibility for journalist

Schools, ethics accountability

41

Newspaper company’s still profiting?

Yes but by cutting costs

42

Know ethical values

Seek truth & Report, Minimize harm, Act independently, Be accountable/ transparent

43

1996 telecommunications act

Can acquire more stations; local production not so good less diversity

44

Horizontal integration

when one company owns one media across the industry

45

Vertical integration

Owns various things to run business

46

What are the Financial Interest in Syndication (FinSyn) Rules? What effected did repealing them have?

Prevented networks from owning shows once they broadcast they can own all aspects of the show

47

People meters

hidden(digital) code to record the activities on data collecting, it listens across devices. It tries to confirm who’s watching certain things

48

Narrowcasting

Trying to target a certain audience (HGTV, ESPN)

49

Golden age of tv

High quality, changed the focus to ratings

50

Morals

Ability to understand right and wrong

51

Ethics

Standards of good conduct

52

Potter’s box

1. Define situation
2. Identify values ( weigh the outcomes
3. Principles
Golden mean, golden rule
4. Loyalties
Greater good better than golden mean?

53

Social contract theory

people in society have an unwritten agreement; if not upholded than the government can intervene

54

Veil of ignorance

Treating all members of society equal so to not know who has stakes on the issue


55

Categorical imperative

Act as if you want it to be a universal law

56

Principle of utility

seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people


57

Pragmatic ethics

That actions should be judged by their result

58

Situation ethics

Moral principles are relative to the solution and not absolute

59

What are cookies?

Code that is installed in your browser helps sites tailor content based on search. Pose threat to privacy

60


What is the principle goal of modern public relations practice

Mutually beneficial relationships with publics that they seek to reach

61

What persuasive effort do public relations engage in?

2 way symmetric relationships

62

Role in lobbying in public relations?

Reach out to decision makers on behalf of client

63

Grunig four models of public relations

1. Press agentry/publicity (ex. P. T. Barnum’s)
2. Public information (ex. Newspapers, magazine, to public)
 3. Two way Asymmetric (unbalanced)(ex. Testing to see if it worked for them and not necessarily the public)
 4. Two way symmetric(relationships are mutual beneficial) 


64

As pluralism increases society’s reliance on advertising _____

Increases

65

Hard sell

Sell product based on factual advertisement (car)

66

Soft sell

Appeal to personal identity which is easier

67

Soft sells and era of creativity

Soft sells were more emotional rather that rational

68

War and advertising

Ww1 understand propaganda. Ww2 there was a more formal advertising for the homefront

69

Video game manufacturers profit from

Selling cart rages

70

Catharsis theory of media effects

if you played violent video games you would be less likely to act on those actions in real life.


71

Virtual reality

Transported into alternate environment

72

Augmented reality

On real environment(ex. PokemonGO)

73

Artificial intelligence

Ability for computers to change behavior on human behavior (ex. Kinda like sims

74

Urgent optimistim

more optimistic in games than in real life

75

Social fabric

we connect with people because we play games with them

76

Blissful productivity

we are happy working hard and focusing on a task instead of relaxing

77

Epic meaning

gamers like to have a mission to overcome.

78

Cultural proximity

Notion that globally audiences prefer content that is proximity instead of distant. (ex. Spanish soap operas, music)


79

Thoughts on US copyright internationally

restrictive/oppressive of the entire country, are overly restrictive/aggressive enforced, particularly when it comes to derivative works.


80

3 top county movies made

India, Nigeria, US

81

Why are US films so good?

They have more funding and greater production value

82

Centrifugal forces

from the middle going outwards.) Help expand possibilities of representation of race and ethnicity in the media. But the industry lore that always had another “reason" behind why they were popular


83

Centripetal force

force from the outside in) (ex. Ramp going into the highway, flower petal)