Flashcards in Final Deck (83):
How has the increasing size, diversity, and structural complexity of society changed societal reliance on interpersonal (e.g., face-to-face communication) versus mass communication? How has social structure changed over history/time?
Less reliance on interpersonal, greater reliance on mass communication
What is feedback control?
Feedback control is a story that covers a social issue. Address problem or unstable social situation
What is disribution control?
Distribution control is when the media withholds information. when they don’t want to report internal social issues but want to report against outside interferences (lacking distribution
What is the protest paradigm? Can you provide specific examples of the protest paradigm?
Attention to appearance and behavior of protestors and show how they’re different from social norm
What is convergence?
Integration on mass media, computers, and telecommunications. (different types of media combining together in the information society)
What’s the role of digitization in helping to drive convergence?
Digitalization transfers text into a computer readable format which is changing the way people communicate today
What are affordances?
are the technical features in the communication channels that allow users to have interpersonal communication like tweeting, or liking a post.
What is narrowcasting?
Targeting content to a smaller audience. This enhances the enrichment of the audiences experiences. Narrowcasting targets different lifestyles, needs, sex, age, or race
Principle that users should not be discriminated against who uses the internet and in what way. Trying to not favor content to their business and charging their competition more
What is convergence?
Experience the same story in different ways and also get audience feedback. Print news doing more things online (trying to compete with competition)
consumers pay money to own products (ex. IPad)
Direct payment for product borrowing
Payment for continuing service
Admission to movies or theater or paper view
But commercial times, or page space
Rental of content to different channels
Compensate the creators of media content
Desirable/ educational but not profitable
What is technological determinism and how does it relate to the printing press, spread of literacy and democracy?
Society’s technology determines the development of social structure and cultural values. But also social political movements that were happening around that time
first level: the more the media covers the more people think of it
Second level: more coverage of attributes the more that someone will have an opinion or those attributes
Hypodermic needle theory of media effects:
powerful direct effect in society bc of media (WWII propaganda) power to sway minds and be convincing
The Bobo Doll experiment was used to illustrate which media theory:
Classical Conditioning; Social learning theory (following behaviors) reward, punishment
What are the branches of government and what roles do they play in media regulation?
Legislative: standards of the industry) laws that empower excutive,
Judicial: fairness doctrine
Marketplace of ideas
philosophy where “society works as a market plane” Protects free speech, bad ideas will go away (not to restrict speech)
Freedom of speech and press. Privacy, intellectual property, ownership
Bans restraints even if libelous and harmful. Journalist aren’t licensed
What types of speech receive more or less communication under the First Amendment (political v. commercial), including which types receive no protection?
Political speech has the most protection (anything that expresses viewpoint on issues)
Commercial speech is less protected, law has more function because it’s advertising intentions trying to gain profit
Censored American press?
Yes in pentagon papers
What is libel? What is the difference in what public versus non-public figures have to establish in order to pursue a successful libel claim
libel is written, fixed in broadcasting, tape, paper, or websites.
Non public Figures need to claim wrong and material damage
Public figures have to prove actual malice(known or should have know that the statement was untrue) false and went ahead anyway
1998 copyright term extension act
Protects from life to 70 years
is language that is used to sell or identify brand (slogan/emblems).
Protect ideas that are in a fixed medium (music)
Protect inventions (Apple)
Who has ultimate authority to regulate communication?
FEderal communication committee
Give and enforce laws
Federal trade commission
Federal elections committee (FEC)
Voluntary systems of regulation
Film and video games
Rebuild credibility for journalist
Schools, ethics accountability
Newspaper company’s still profiting?
Yes but by cutting costs
Know ethical values
Seek truth & Report, Minimize harm, Act independently, Be accountable/ transparent
1996 telecommunications act
Can acquire more stations; local production not so good less diversity
when one company owns one media across the industry
Owns various things to run business
What are the Financial Interest in Syndication (FinSyn) Rules? What effected did repealing them have?
Prevented networks from owning shows once they broadcast they can own all aspects of the show
hidden(digital) code to record the activities on data collecting, it listens across devices. It tries to confirm who’s watching certain things
Trying to target a certain audience (HGTV, ESPN)
Golden age of tv
High quality, changed the focus to ratings
Ability to understand right and wrong
Standards of good conduct
1. Define situation
2. Identify values ( weigh the outcomes
Golden mean, golden rule
Greater good better than golden mean?
Social contract theory
people in society have an unwritten agreement; if not upholded than the government can intervene
Veil of ignorance
Treating all members of society equal so to not know who has stakes on the issue
Act as if you want it to be a universal law
Principle of utility
seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
That actions should be judged by their result
Moral principles are relative to the solution and not absolute
What are cookies?
Code that is installed in your browser helps sites tailor content based on search. Pose threat to privacy
What is the principle goal of modern public relations practice
Mutually beneficial relationships with publics that they seek to reach
What persuasive effort do public relations engage in?
2 way symmetric relationships
Role in lobbying in public relations?
Reach out to decision makers on behalf of client
Grunig four models of public relations
1. Press agentry/publicity (ex. P. T. Barnum’s)
2. Public information (ex. Newspapers, magazine, to public)
3. Two way Asymmetric (unbalanced)(ex. Testing to see if it worked for them and not necessarily the public)
4. Two way symmetric(relationships are mutual beneficial)
As pluralism increases society’s reliance on advertising _____
Sell product based on factual advertisement (car)
Appeal to personal identity which is easier
Soft sells and era of creativity
Soft sells were more emotional rather that rational
War and advertising
Ww1 understand propaganda. Ww2 there was a more formal advertising for the homefront
Video game manufacturers profit from
Selling cart rages
Catharsis theory of media effects
if you played violent video games you would be less likely to act on those actions in real life.
Transported into alternate environment
On real environment(ex. PokemonGO)
Ability for computers to change behavior on human behavior (ex. Kinda like sims
more optimistic in games than in real life
we connect with people because we play games with them
we are happy working hard and focusing on a task instead of relaxing
gamers like to have a mission to overcome.
Notion that globally audiences prefer content that is proximity instead of distant. (ex. Spanish soap operas, music)
Thoughts on US copyright internationally
restrictive/oppressive of the entire country, are overly restrictive/aggressive enforced, particularly when it comes to derivative works.
3 top county movies made
India, Nigeria, US
Why are US films so good?
They have more funding and greater production value
from the middle going outwards.) Help expand possibilities of representation of race and ethnicity in the media. But the industry lore that always had another “reason" behind why they were popular