Final - 7, going urban Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final - 7, going urban Deck (33)
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1

Why do people move?

- Economic factors
- Marriage
- Climate
- Political
- War or famine
- Environmental degradation

2

Refugees:

are people forced to leave their country, usually due to armed conflict or persecution

3

Urban Areas


- has economic function where majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture, or the presence of urban characteristics

4

What are challenges of studying urban issues?

- Lack of uniform definition
- Availability of census data
- Changing definitions of urban areas over time make comparative studies difficult

5

What are the causes/drivers of urbanization?

- industrial revolution
- industrialization following the industrial revolution
- emergence of large manufacturing centres
- job opportunities
- availability of easy transportation and other infrastructure facilities
- migration, immigration

6

Push Factors

Forces that drive people away from a place

7

Pull Factors

Forces drawing people to a new location

8

Megacities

Are metropolitan areas with a population of 10 million or more

9

Metacities

A major conurbation, a megacity of more than 20 million people

10

Urban Agglomerations

A population of a built up or densely populated area containing the city, suburbs and settled commuter areas inhabited at urban levels of residential density.

11

Mega-Regions

A rapid growing urban cluster surrounded by low density hinterland, formed as a result of expansion, growth and geographical convergence of more than one metropolitan area and other agglomerations
- Common in North American and Europe

12

City-Regions

An urban development on a massive scale: a major city that expands beyond administrative boundaries to engulf small cities, towns, and semi urban hinterlands

13

Urban systems

An interdependent set of urban settlements within a specified region

14

World or Global Cities

Are places where information and culture is gathered and disseminated, and entertainment is provided to the wider public through mass media and universities.
- Services are increasingly concentrated in large cities, especially in core regions linked to globalization

15

Major/Global cities - Alpha ++

- Major centres of political power, where governmental decision making and international political institutions are located
- Centres of congregation for professional talent (medical, legal, industrial)

16

Primacy

A condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relation to the second and third largest cities in that system
Eg.) London, Paris, Mexico City

17

Centrality

The functional dominance of cities within an urban system
- High share of economic, political and cultural activities relative to population, not just size

18

Challenges for an urbanizing world

- Population growth
- urbanization in semi-peripheral and peripheral regions
- Environmental and social challenges

19

Population growth

Is concentrated in the global south but is especially evident in cities and informal settlement areas

20

Urbanization in semi-peripheral and peripheral regions

Are the largest and fastest growing cities with informal economies

21

Environmental and social challenges

Affect accès to facilities, healthcare, education, clean water... etc.

22

Urban Form

- The physical structure and organization of cities
- Have historical legacies and contemporary politics and policy
- Have geography and topography of the location

23

CBD

- Central business district
- The central nucleus of commercial land uses in a city
Eg.) major institutions, transportation hub, office space

24

Gentrification

The movement into older, centrally located working class neighbourhoods by higher income households

25

Intensification

Densification through new residential or commercial construction

26

The centre

- Has high densities, public transit use, socio-economic diversity
- Gentrification and income polarization

27

The inner suburbs

- Lower densities, rental and ownership housing, more car dependent but there is still public transit

28

Outer suburbs

- Lowest densities, high car dependency, fastest growing areas
- Loss of prime agricultural land

29

What shapes urban space?

- Economic: competition for territory and location
- History/public policy: influence of transportation systems and other investments
- Socio-cultural perspective: focuses on the social organization of space by choice

30

Socio-spatial patterns

- Segregation
- Congregation

31

Segregation

The spatial separation of specific population subgroups within a wider population
- by social class, ethnicity/race

32

Congregation

The territorial and residential clustering of specific groups or subgroups of people

33

Informal economic activities

- Are informal but highly organized
- Diverse and often dynamic sector of the economy