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Flashcards in FINAL 8 - Feed the world Deck (28)
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1

Arable Land

Is temporarily used for crops, meadows or pastures including land purposefully left temporarily fallow

2

Agricultural Land

Is arable land plus land used for permanent, long term crops that don't need to be replanted yearly
Eg.) fruits, nut trees

3

What affects farmable land?

- Climate
- Water
- Altitude
- Deforestation
- Climate change

4

Water Scarcity

- About 43 countries suffer form water scarcity today
- By 2030, almost half the worlds population will be living in areas of high water stress

5

How do geographers look at agriculture?

- They describe practices, techniques, strategies: seasonal patterns, implications for soil management and types of crops used
- They explain why activities vary from place to place
- The investigate the effects of climate, religion, government policies and soil characteristics

6

Why study agriculture?

- It is a major aspect of human - environment relationships
- It is affect by climate, religion, government policies and soil characteristics

7

What is agriculture?

A science, art, and business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit

8

Environmental factors that condition agriculture:

- Climate and weather
- Soil characteristics
- Topography

9

Climate/weather

- Plants and animals require certain conditions to survive and grow properly
- Low temperatures equal slower growth rates which limits the geographic range of crops

10

Soils

The best soils for a crop usually has a loamy texture, high organic content and abundant nutrients

11

Relief and topography

- Altitude temperature
- It is difficult to mechanize on steep slopes

12

Human factors that condition agriculture:

- Cultural traditions (treatment of animals)
- technologies (mechanization, biotechnology)
- Government policies (land forms, subsidies)
- Economic globalization (NAFTA)
- Deforestation and soil salinization
- Anthropogenic climate change
- Desertification and sea level rise

13

What are different types of farming/food production?

- Subsistence farming
- Shifting cultivation
- Pastoralism
- Commercial agriculture
Industrial agriculture

14

Subsistence Farming/horticulture

- Main goal is to grow enough food to eat, as well as some surplus for the market
- Fewer chemical inputs
- Labour intensive
- Smaller farms
- Practiced mainly in poorer countries

15

Shifting Cultivation

- Practiced mainly in humid tropical forest regions
- A form of rotational agriculture
- Diverse mixture of crops used
- Supports relatively low population densities

16

Intensive subsistence cultivation

- Very labour intensive
- Raised fields or terraces
- Can support large populations
- Often two or more harvests per yer

17

Pastoralism

- Practiced mainly in cold and dry climates
- Most practice transhumance herding (horses, camels, goats)
- Traditional movements of nomadic pastoralists

18

Commercial agriculture

- Production for the market
- The dominant type of agriculture in "core" countries
- Includes large agribusiness as well as small family farms
- they respond to supply and demand which affects prices and decisions on what to plant

19

The industrialization of agriculture

The process whereby the farm has moved from being a centre piece of agriculture production to becoming a mere part of integrated multilevel industrial processes that include production, storage, processing and retailing

20

Industrialized agribusiness

- Regional or global in scope depending on the type of agriculture
- Heavy reliance on agrochemicals
- Highly mechanized
- Larger farms/plantations
- Processing

21

How have dramatic increases in food been possible?

- Mechanization
- Chemical farming (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides)
- New processing, transportation and storage methods

22

Solutions to food shortages:

Hybrid crop varieties
Irrigation
GMO's

23

Hybrid crop varieties

- Mature faster
- produce more food per plant
- Some bred to respond better to fertilizers
- Can reduce vulnerability to pests

24

Irrigation

Increases yields and allows more harvests per year however it is an unsustainable use of groundwater

25

GMO's

- Can create crops that are resistance to insects without the use of pesticides
- They also have higher nutritional value and longer shelf life which saves money and reduces fossil fuels and pollution

26

Benefits of Organic farming

- No synthetic pesticides of fertilizers
- No growth hormones or antibiotics
- No GMO's
- They will cost more

27

Will it be possible to keep producing more and more food for our growing population?

It is unlikely as all the best lands are under cultivation and expansion of cities

28

Agriculture

is a science, an art and a business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit.