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Flashcards in Final Deck (124)
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1

The principle of cooperation with evil

Used when someone else uses our good actions for evil

2

Types of cooperation

1. Formal Cooperation (Explicit or implicit)
2. Material Cooperation (Immediate or mediate)

3

Explicit Formal Cooperation

Evil intent is known

4

Implicit Formal Cooperation

Evil intent is not known but is implied

5

Immediate Material cooperation

Your action plays a big role

6

Mediate Material Cooperation

Your action does not play an essential role

7

Mediate Material cooperation can be morally permissible if

1. Proportionality of your doing the action
2. How grave is the evil/What is the good you are doing?

8

The graveness of an action

1. Proximity to the action
2. Is your participation essential or nonessential
3. Question of Scandal (leading others to sin....We have a moral obligation to reduce scandal)

9

Conscientious Objection

Have a judgment of conscience about a particular action and you refuse to do that action because your conscience has deemed it morally wrong

10

Medical Vitalism

Have to do everything to keep a person alive

11

Subjectivism

Do not have to do anything and it is up to the patient

12

Ordinary (Medical)

Scientifically established, statistically successful, available

13

Extraordinary (Medical)

More experimental, not readily available

14

Ordinary (Church)

Proportionate

Morally Obligatory

Treatments in which the benefits of the treatment outweigh the burdens of the treatment

15

Extraordinary (Church)

Disproportionate

Morally Optional

Treatments in which the burdens of the treatment outweigh the benefits of the treatment

16

Can you forgo extraordinary means?

Yes, as long as one does not fail some more serious duty

You need to consider your spiritual and social relationships

17

Who decides what is extraordinary and what is ordinary?

The patient unless it is contradictory to Catholic Moral Teaching

Can not force a treatment but can not cooperate with an evil action

18

Preserving Life

Life is good and we are called to preserve it but that duty is not an absolute duty (God has ownership of our lives)

19

Euthanasia

Intrinsic Evil

An action or an omission which of itself or by intention causes death in order that all suffering be eliminated

Ordinary Universal Teaching

20

NG Tube

Runs from nose down to stomach; more temporary

21

GJ Tube

Tube that starts in the stomach and runs down to small instenstine

more permanent

used if someone has issues digesting in stomach

22

TPN

Nutrition and hydration provided through veins

Used when stomach and small intestine can not digest food

Doctors do not like using long term because of risk

23

Possible Benefits of ANH

Survival
Prolong Life
Reduce risk of aspiration (Pneumonia sometimes)
increase funtion
Communal value of food

24

Possible Burdens of ANH

Irritation
Infection
Uncomfortable
Complication
Financial Burden
Increase risk of Aspiration (Pneumonia)
Risk of Surgery
Take away pleasure of eating and taking away communal aspect
sometimes requires restraint

25

Specific Cases Church Believes ANH is extraordinary

1. Very remote places or in extreme poverty where it can not be provided

2. Cases where patients can not assimilate food or liquid

3. Any complications in the means (Excessively Burdensome)

4. Would not be reasonably expected to prolong life

26

PDE: Lethal Dose of Morphine

Physical Action: Lethal dose
Moral Object: Euthanasia

Intention: Relieve pain by hastening death

Bad Effect (Death) is means to good effect (Relief of Pain)

Murder/suicide is intrinsically evil and you can not do an intrinsic evil even for good intention no matter the magnitude of the good

27

Personhood of the Fetus

Personhood is a philosophical question, and philosophy is the handmaiden of theology

28

Is the fetus an individual?

Has unique DNA, can respond to stimulation, and metabolization is occurring within its cells so it appears to be an individual

Should error on the side of caution when we are unsure

29

How should we treat the fetus?

With the same dignity as a human person

Didache spoke out against abortion and exposure

Church can do this since it has supremacy in the area of faith and morals

30

Four parts of the promises that spouses make to each other in their wedding vows which they renew during the conjugal act?

I give myself to you freely, faithfully, totally and fruitfully

This is also how God loves us

31

TOB 1

Human beings are made incomplete and we yearn to be in communion with other people

32

TOB 2

In order to find ourselves we have to give ourselves

33

TOB 3

Sexual intercourse in marriage is the most radical from of self giving

It is the only action where we can completely give ourselves to another person

34

TOB 4

"Language of the body"

With our bodies we say "I give myself to you freely, totally, faithfully, and fruitfully"

35

"Responsible Parenthood"

At some points in time, not not necessarily at all times, it may be permissable to refrain from having children for financial, health, and other reasons

This is a prudential judgements by the couple (Should be taken to God in prayer)

36

Values of NFP and Contraception

Refrain from having children (may be permissable)

37

Disvalues of contraception

Seperation of the procreative and unitive dimensions of the conjugal act by rendering procreation impossible

38

Eugenics

Movement aimed at improving the human race

39

Which types of cooperation are always morally impermissible

Explicit/Implicit Formal Cooperation

Immediate Material Cooperation

40

What distinguishes Implicit formal cooperation and immediate material cooperation?

1. If there is another possible reason then it is not necessarily implied
2. If there is duress

41

Duress

Can lessen moral culpability

42

Referal for contraception

Immediate material-Does it play a big role?

Mediate Material-Perhaps not a big role, other physician might not prescribe

43

Bads and Goods of Mediate Material referal for contraception

Goods: Ensuring the patient gets a good physician, good care of the patient

Bads: Risk of scandal and the patient actually getting contraception

44

Compassion means

To suffer with

45

Physical action of Euthanasia

An action (PAS/Euthanasia) or an ommision (Withdrawing/withholding ordinary treatment) which of itself

46

Euthanasia (Medical/Legal)

Someone else is responsible for the death of the patient in the name of eliminating suffering

47

PAS

Physician supplies the means while the patient does the action causing death

48

Palliative Care

1. Symptom Management
2. "Big Picture"
3. Can happen at any point in life
4. No limitation on medical procedures

49

Who is palliative care for

Helpful for anyone who has chronic conditions which cause complicated symptoms (Symptom management)

50

Hospice

1. Started by Catholics
2. Sub part of palliative care
3. Can be provided in the home or at hospice home
4. Most medical treatments are extraordinary
5. Do not necessarily have to have a DNR
6. Focus is on comfort care
7. No extraordinary means

51

Who is Hospice for?

People who have 6 or less months to live

52

Objective

Whats true about the action itself

53

Subjective

Refers to the moral culpability of the individual

The person might not be completely culpable (might not be fully responsible for the action)

54

Last rites

End of life situations

1. Anointing of the Sick
2. Confession
3. Eucharist (Viaticum=last eucharist "Preperation for the journey")

55

Palliative sedation action

Slowly titrating dose of pain meds

56

Goods and Bads of Palliative Sedation

Bad Effects: Possibly hastening death

Good Effects: Freedom From pain

57

PDE Palliative sedation

Physical Action: Giving increasing doses of pain medication

Intention: To free from pain (for the good only)

The good effect occurs at least as immediately as the bad effect
Bad effect is not the means to the good effect

Proportionality (Significant pain, spiritual state of the patient)

58

PDE Lethal dose of Morphine

Physical Action:Lethal Dose

Intention: To relieve pain and to hasten death

The bad effect is the means to the good effect (If the person does not die you have not achieved what you intended)

Not Proportional (Debatable)

59

Moral vs Legal question of PAS/Euth

Moral: Whether PAS/Euth is morally right/wrong

Legal: Whether PAS/Euth should be legal/illegal

60

ANH Church Teaching

ANH is always ordinary except when it is extraordinary

in principle there is an obligation to provide water/food

ANH is normal/minimal care/natural means

61

Normal care

Comfort but also a medical dimension

Bathing, Turning, Bathroom, Keeping lips moist, ANH

There can be cases where these become extraordinary

62

Heterologous

One of the gametes comes from a donor

Includes surrogate mother

63

Homologous

Both gametes come from the spouse

64

IVF

Egg and sperm are mixed on a petri dish where fertilization occurs

Then the embryo is placed in the womb

65

ICSI

Similar to IVF but sperm is directly injected into the egg

66

ZIFT

Similar to IVF but the embryo is placed into the fallopian tube

67

GIFT

Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube after egg and sperm are placed there

68

AI

Sperm deposited into the uterus

69

Key distinction between permissible and impermissible fertility treatments

The catholic church distinguishes between ARTs which replace and those which assist the conjugal act

70

NaPro aim

To diagnose and treat the cause of infertility through medical procedures as well as surgery

71

NaPro Effectiveness

It is as effective if not more effective than IVF

It is permissable since it is assisting not replacing the conjugal act

72

Reading and engaging with others in a charitable and critical manner

Take what other person has to say seriously and try to understand where they are coming from

73

Why be charitable and critical

Their opinions may be wrong so you need to think about their argument critically and when it is wrong argue for the truth

You want to engage with them charitably so they will not write you off immediately

74

Tolerance new view

The truly tolerant person accepts the views of other individuals and treats those individual fairly

He rejects dogmatism and absolutism and considers all views equally valid

75

Tolerance old view

Respect the rights of individuals to hold and voice their own beliefs/opinions

One's own right to disagree with these beliefs and challenge them

76

Subjectivism (T1)

There are moral truths but they are dependent on what each individual believes (Type of Relativism)

77

Relativism

Moral statements are the kinds of things that can be true or false but can change based on either the individual (subjectivism) or culture (cultural relativism)

78

Objectivism (TI)

Moral statements are the kinds of things that can be true or false and this does not change.

What is true and false is independent of the individual or culture rather it just is

79

Two aims of a moral theory

Theoretical and Practical

80

Theoretical aim

Tries to explain right from wrong

81

Practical aim

Application of theoretical to concrete examples

82

Consequentialism

Greatest good for the greatest number (Theoretical and practical)

83

Kantianism

The reason an action is right is because it treats people as ends

Practical: That actioin should be a universal

84

Natural Law

We should do good and avoid evil (Method is the theory)

never act against a basic good

85

Deontological

Morality is based on following commandments of law giver

86

Teleological

Moral action is right or wrong if it is aimed at the end (telos) of that being

does the act lead to fulfillment?

Does the act contradict basic goods?

87

2 meanings of freedom

Freedom to choose=This is more license and tends to become the strong vs the weak (akin to free will)

Freedom to choose the good= this is aimed at our telos and leads to fulfillment

88

Three steps of conscience

1. Grasp the principles of morality
2.Apply to specific situations
3. Judgement of a specific act

89

Extraordinary teaching

Infallible

Response owed by Catholics is an assent of faith

90

Ordinary and universal

Infallible

Response owed by Catholics is an assent of faith

91

Ordinary

Authoratative but per se not irreformable

Religious submission of faith/intellect

92

Prudential

Fallible

Adherence

93

Grace

Unmerited help from God

Can come in the form of the virtues which are stable dispositions to do the good

They can also come in the form of gifts of the holy spirit

94

Three parts of a moral action

Object-This is the moral species or the type of the action

Intention-why? if the object is intrinsically evil then you necessarily intend the evil

Circumstances-This is the context such as time and place. These can make a good act good or bad but can not make an evil act good

95

PVS

1. Alive
2. Brain functions but upper brain is severely impaired
3. Has sleep wake cycles
4. No evidence of awareness
5. No evidence of communication

96

Coma

1. Alive
2. slowed brain function
3. No arousal
4. No evidence of awareness
5. No evidence of communication

97

MCS

1. Alive
2. slowed brain function
3. Sleep Wake cycles
4. Some, minimal but reproducible awareness
5. Can be some communication (minimal but reproducible)

98

Locked in syndrome

1. Alive
2. Normal Brain function
3. Sleep Wake cycles
4. Full awareness
5. eye movements and blinking

99

Persistent PVS

Over 1 month

58% regain consciousness

100

Permanent PVS

12 months post TBI

3 months in non-TBI

Less than 1% regain consciousness

101

ANH for PVS

In principle there is an obligation however there are some situations where it could be optional

102

Are PVS patients dying?

In general patients with PVS are not dying

103

Fr. O'Rurke PVS

Contrary to church teaking

Do not need to provide ANH in case of PVS since the burdens outweigh the benefits

Mere biological life seems to be different from life

104

Fr. O'Rurke PVS burden

Being kept alive without being able to reach spiritual relationship with God

105

Response to Fr. O'Rurke PVS

Problematic: Disabled people, might be conscious

106

Brain Death

1. Legally not Alive
2. Higher brain and brain stem are not functioning
3. No arousal
4. No awareness
5. No communication

107

Legal criteria for death

Brain Death

Heart lung death

Catholic Church accepts both of these definitions of death

108

Brain Death

Irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brainstem

109

Heart Lung Death

Irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory function

110

How does the church define death

Seperation of the soul and body (Theological and philisophical question)

111

Criteria

Criteria tell us when we know death has already occured

What clinical markers are there that give us certainty that the patient has died

(does not tell us the exact moment of death but rather that death has occured which is a scientific question)

112

Legal Fiction

Useful way of saying something even if it is not true (Time of Death)

113

Science can tell us

Whats human, and criteria for life (b)

Criteria for something being death (e)

114

Philisophy can tell us

Personhood (b)
How do we treat the unborn child/is abortion morally permissable (b)

End of personhood/def of death (e)
How do you treat the dead body?
can you do something to allow death?
can you cause death (PAS/EUTH/SUICIDE)?
What should you do when you are not sure whether the person has died?
How do we treat the dying person?

115

Church and death

The church accepts the criteria of brain death/heart-lung death as long as the criteria are upheld rigorously

if the person has already died then all treatment becomes extraordinary

116

Nicanur and death

In order for the patient to be dead all cellular functioning must have ceased

Concerned that brain death bodies can still do things that you would not expect a dead body to do

He agrees that to keep treating the person is extraordinary

117

Is Nicanur dissenting?

Not dissenting since he is disagreeing with the scientific criteria

118

Ventilator and brain death

Brain death comes after lung-heart death so the ventilator is preventing brain death

119

Abolition of man 1

Mans power over nature turns out to be a power exercised by some men over other men with nature as its instrument

120

Abolition of man 1 technology

Every time men develop something technologically it becomes a thing ( can be given or taken from people)

Technology can be used to exert poer over others

121

Abolition of man 2

Man's final conquest has proved to be the abolition of man

122

Conquest of nature and tao

Conquest of nature (treating everything as a thing) including tao (sort of relatavism)

Nothing objectively true about humanity and morality becomes about emotions

123

Abolition of man 3

Man's conquest of nature turns out to be natures conquest of man

124

AB 3 tradition

If you get rid of traditional morality you return to your bas impulses

Man is not really in control if he goes by his gut