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Explain the middle income trap.

The middle income trap is when a countrys economic growth slows after reaching middle income levels and it no longer seems possible to reach higher income levels


Solutions for middle income trap:

o Technological accessibility and innovations
o Encouraging participation of production forces in determining the directions of
the market
o Improving intellectual property rights
o Strengthening labor unions


What can other developing countries learn from the experience of the emerging economies?

 main focus on progressing in human development

 innovative approaches to negotiating trade and investment strategies

 increase in income does not mean equitable distribution (equality barriers)


What motives drive democratic states to promote democracy elsewhere?

a. The rights-based approach
b. Autonomy of agencies
c. Local leadership, accountability to local beneficiaries
d. Research-based
e. Multi-sectoral
f. Cost effectiveness
g. Inclusiveness


In the process of promoting democracy, how can democratic states distinguish their actions from interfering in the sovereign affairs of other nations?

a. advance democracy in autocratic countries, if not at the system level then at least in
some specific respects, while avoiding to do harm;

b. develop a distinctive Canadian approach to supporting democratization abroad, and to
build an effective institutional framework as well as civil society capacity around it; and

c. promote Canada’s foreign policy goals and enhance Canada’s standing in world


What are some good arguments against promoting democracy abroad, and supporting authoritative regimes?

 Interfering in non-democratic countries may affect the trade relations between the

 Democracies might be politically less stable because democracy looks different in each country and countries may use democracy for negative purposes

 A democracy promotion strategy based on diffusion does not stop authoritarian governments from returning partially or fully.

 Possibility of interfering with international peace, especially in volatile countries

 Democracy is a broad term, it can mean different things to different countries


ICHRDD “International Center for Human Rights and Democratic Development”

Established by the act of the Canadian parliament in 1988 to “ encourage and support the universal values of human rights and the promotion of democratic institutions and practices around the world.”


CIDA: Canadian International development agency: federal agency

 Administer foreign aid in developing countries

 Merged into the department of foreign affairs

 Efforts focused on basic human needs, women, infrastructure for the poor, human rights, democratic development, governments, private sector development, and environment


Distinct difference between ICHRDD and CIDA

- ICHRDD constrained by a small budget and it points out shortcomings of the government (non-

- They provided a lot of international education on how to improve and promote

- It's an arms-length corporation & not a government department

CIDA affiliated with the government (has increased funding) and promotes good governance.
They created new policies for improving democracy abroad


A distinctive Canadian approach to democratization would be:

 a rights-based approach: a holistic view of democracy assistance

 autonomy of agencies: agencies are coherent, built with the country that they are
working with, and use democracy assistance

 local leadership: including accountability to local beneficiaries


What are the dimensions of fragility?

- military

- political

- social

- economic



What are the causes of fragility?

- histroical roots

- political and institutional,

- economic

- international, social, security, and environmental factors, as well as geographical matters.


Explain the human security approach

 The universality and interdependence of a set of freedoms that are fundamental to human life

 Acknowledgement of the link between human rights, development, and security

 The UN definition: The right of people to live in freedom and dignity, free from poverty and despair.


Explain the link between human security and the capability approach.

Capability Approach = favours people's choice results in good development

Human security = freedom from fear, dignity, free from poverty & despair


Human security acknowledges the inter-linkages

o Human rights
o Development
o Security


Duty bearers

are those actors who have a particular obligation or responsibility to respect, promote and realize human rights and to abstain from human rights violations.


Explain the obligation of states under the right to development

a. Cooperate in ensuring development and eliminating obstacles to development

b. Eliminate massive and flagrant violations of human rights
o There must be a legal obligation-- not a moral
obligation in regards to fighting for human
rights; recognized by the international community

c. Respect the principles of international law concerning friendly relations and cooperation among


What is the right response to underdevelopment and poverty, given the collapsing of the normative
importance of borders?

- Developing a new understanding of human security and creating a more people-centered approach in which priority is given to individuals and protecting their freedom

- Working towards a condition of globality

- Considering the fact that it is an interdependent world which means there are interdependent threats

- Empowerment, improving capability, human wellbeing


What is new in the arguments of development ethicists?

- Shift from the comprehensive ideas of development to a constructed and agreed-upon account of development

- A move beyond the mere moral arguments on development towards the formation of a political will for change

- A move and commitment toward a perfect duty for addressing and alleviating inequality


In a few points, discuss your greatest take-away from the chapter on ethics & development.

- Change the assumptions about development (not only economic development)

- Must ensure that human development and prosperity is at the centre of all projects

- “Good development” = made and constructed by nations by their own structures and own needs

- In order for good development to take place, ethical development must also be present

- development must be guided by the nation's own desirable growth, fulfillment of good


Why did we join the Colombo plan

- The Cold War and concern about the spread of communism in South Asia

- Balance of power and stability in Asia

- A significant push from Britain to find ways of burden-sharing with respect to its post-independence commitment