Flashcards in Final Deck (81)
Explain the middle income trap.
The middle income trap is when a countrys economic growth slows after reaching middle income levels and it no longer seems possible to reach higher income levels
Solutions for middle income trap:
o Technological accessibility and innovations
o Encouraging participation of production forces in determining the directions of
o Improving intellectual property rights
o Strengthening labor unions
What can other developing countries learn from the experience of the emerging economies?
main focus on progressing in human development
innovative approaches to negotiating trade and investment strategies
increase in income does not mean equitable distribution (equality barriers)
What motives drive democratic states to promote democracy elsewhere?
a. The rights-based approach
b. Autonomy of agencies
c. Local leadership, accountability to local beneficiaries
f. Cost effectiveness
In the process of promoting democracy, how can democratic states distinguish their actions from interfering in the sovereign affairs of other nations?
a. advance democracy in autocratic countries, if not at the system level then at least in
some specific respects, while avoiding to do harm;
b. develop a distinctive Canadian approach to supporting democratization abroad, and to
build an effective institutional framework as well as civil society capacity around it; and
c. promote Canada’s foreign policy goals and enhance Canada’s standing in world
What are some good arguments against promoting democracy abroad, and supporting authoritative regimes?
Interfering in non-democratic countries may affect the trade relations between the
Democracies might be politically less stable because democracy looks different in each country and countries may use democracy for negative purposes
A democracy promotion strategy based on diffusion does not stop authoritarian governments from returning partially or fully.
Possibility of interfering with international peace, especially in volatile countries
Democracy is a broad term, it can mean different things to different countries
ICHRDD “International Center for Human Rights and Democratic Development”
Established by the act of the Canadian parliament in 1988 to “ encourage and support the universal values of human rights and the promotion of democratic institutions and practices around the world.”
CIDA: Canadian International development agency: federal agency
Administer foreign aid in developing countries
Merged into the department of foreign affairs
Efforts focused on basic human needs, women, infrastructure for the poor, human rights, democratic development, governments, private sector development, and environment
Distinct difference between ICHRDD and CIDA
- ICHRDD constrained by a small budget and it points out shortcomings of the government (non-
- They provided a lot of international education on how to improve and promote
- It's an arms-length corporation & not a government department
CIDA affiliated with the government (has increased funding) and promotes good governance.
They created new policies for improving democracy abroad
A distinctive Canadian approach to democratization would be:
a rights-based approach: a holistic view of democracy assistance
autonomy of agencies: agencies are coherent, built with the country that they are
working with, and use democracy assistance
local leadership: including accountability to local beneficiaries
What are the dimensions of fragility?
What are the causes of fragility?
- histroical roots
- political and institutional,
- international, social, security, and environmental factors, as well as geographical matters.
Explain the human security approach
The universality and interdependence of a set of freedoms that are fundamental to human life
Acknowledgement of the link between human rights, development, and security
The UN definition: The right of people to live in freedom and dignity, free from poverty and despair.
Explain the link between human security and the capability approach.
Capability Approach = favours people's choice results in good development
Human security = freedom from fear, dignity, free from poverty & despair
Human security acknowledges the inter-linkages
o Human rights
are those actors who have a particular obligation or responsibility to respect, promote and realize human rights and to abstain from human rights violations.
Explain the obligation of states under the right to development
a. Cooperate in ensuring development and eliminating obstacles to development
b. Eliminate massive and flagrant violations of human rights
o There must be a legal obligation-- not a moral
obligation in regards to fighting for human
rights; recognized by the international community
c. Respect the principles of international law concerning friendly relations and cooperation among
What is the right response to underdevelopment and poverty, given the collapsing of the normative
importance of borders?
- Developing a new understanding of human security and creating a more people-centered approach in which priority is given to individuals and protecting their freedom
- Working towards a condition of globality
- Considering the fact that it is an interdependent world which means there are interdependent threats
- Empowerment, improving capability, human wellbeing
What is new in the arguments of development ethicists?
- Shift from the comprehensive ideas of development to a constructed and agreed-upon account of development
- A move beyond the mere moral arguments on development towards the formation of a political will for change
- A move and commitment toward a perfect duty for addressing and alleviating inequality
In a few points, discuss your greatest take-away from the chapter on ethics & development.
- Change the assumptions about development (not only economic development)
- Must ensure that human development and prosperity is at the centre of all projects
- “Good development” = made and constructed by nations by their own structures and own needs
- In order for good development to take place, ethical development must also be present
- development must be guided by the nation's own desirable growth, fulfillment of good