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Why Canada did not engage in the world before WW1?

Colony of Britain
 Not prosperous
 Couldn’t make own decisions
 Not enough political/economic power


What is the Colombo Plan?

The Colombo Plan (1950) is a regional organization that embodies the concept of
collective inter-governmental effort to strengthen economic and social development
of member countries in the Asia-Pacific region.


What are the incentives behind the Colombo Plan?

 the beginning of Canada’s engagement in international development

 The Colombo plan established in 1951 with 7 founding member countries based on
the discussions at the Commonwealth Foreign Ministers Conference held in
Colombo in 1950

 Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, UK


Tied Aid

developmental projects in which it is necessary that companies from the donor
country are employed so that it economically helps the donor as well


United Aid

aid with no preconditions for its use or implementation



Canadian International Development Agency


Types of Government Funding:

1. Responsive Funding
2. Needs-Based approach
3. Country focus


solidarity fund?

 emerge out of a sense of community in order to better lives of
peoples across the world across similar issues. They focus on the needs of people.
 Purpose is to promote the rights of workers internationally & contribute funds to
development projects


Fundraising in Canadian NGOs (Non-governmental Organizations):

 Started as a guilt-ridden response to “pornography of poverty”
 The Canadian Council for International Cooperation (CCIC) created a code of ethics for
fundraising, which said that the dignity and rights of the portrayed individuals had to be maintained and to portray the communities as actively involved in their own
 Child sponsorship has been the most effective method of fundraising as it connects the
giver and receiver



Focused on dedicating Canada’s aid to gender equality and women’s rights programs for
poverty reduction efforts

- Feminist approach: Women and girls need to be empowered and valued for sustainable
development- have to be included in decision making processes when new programs
are launched

- The new policy focuses on five pillars: Gender equality, human dignity, inclusive growth,
environment and climate action, inclusive governance, and peace and security.


Soft Loans:

loans with concessional factors such as low or non-existent interest rates,
criticisms are that policies are imposed on countries with lack of regard for their needs,
absence of capacity building, motivated by preventing the penetration of communism


Deconolization of the mind

-Deconstruction of western based assumptions of development (very neoliberal)
- Challenging the superiority of the west
- Indigenous people challenge those assumptions


What are the institues of a civil society?

Social sphere (social life, family, community organizations), political sphere
(government, and people who enforce the rules) and economic sphere (markets,
investors and labour), the overlay and intersection of which is civil society.


Difference between CSO and NGOs

-CSO is the umbrella term encompassing many things, including NGOs,

-which are characterized by many things including having a consultative status at international organizations such as the United Nations.

-NGOs are formal entities, which CSOs are
not, and NGOs are the formal type of CSOs, and CSOs tend to keep their distance
and independence from the state and government.


Example of CSOs in Canada

Canadian Council of Christian Churches, Canadian Nurses Asociation, Native
Women's Association of Canada, and many others.


What is a relational worldview? Why should it be applied to development?

- Everything is connected: mind, body, context, spirit
- Should be applied to development because it’s egalitarian.
- Collective harmony- as a whole


Bretton Woods conference

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) to maintain order in the international monetary system
The World Bank to promote general economic development