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Flashcards in Final - Andrology Deck (10):
1

Andrology

- branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the male reproductive system

2

Basic functions of the andrology laboratory

- an andrology laboratory typically deals with samples from patients who are experiencing infertility

3

Conditions under which semen samples should be collected for analysis

- anyone who is having trouble conceiving should have a semen analysis done
- patients should exercise sexual abstinence (no ejaculation) for 2-3 days but no more than 7 and no less than 1 day prior to collection
- recommended technique is masturbation (without lubricants) at the laboratory facility in a collection container. It can also be retrieved through intercourse via a special condom
- Exact time of collection and whether any portion of sample was lost must be noted. Analyses must be within one hour but preferably as soon as liquifaction is complete

4

Semen analysis

- liquifaction
- viscosity
-volume
- color
- pH
- agglutination
- WBCs
- membrane integrity test
- membrane function test
- RBCs
- fructose
- sperm motility
- sperm count
- sperm morphology

5

Normal values for:
Liquifaction
Viscosity
Volume
Color
pH

- 10-20 min after ejaculation
- semen thread = 3-5 cm
- 1-6 mL
- grey-to-white opalescent fluid
- 7.2 - 8.0

6

Normal values for:
WBCs
Membrane integrity test
Membrane function test

- < 5 WBC/HPF (high power field)
- indicator of anti-sperm antibodies
- epididymal -> ejaculated -> capacitated

7

Normal Values of Sperm Motility

Total motility: > 40 %
Progressive motility: >32%
Antibody-like motility (immobilizing): <5%

8

Normal Values of Sperm Count

Concentration: > 20 million/mL
Total Count: > 40 million/ ejaculate
Total motile count: > 20 million

9

Normal Values of Sperm Morphology

- best parameter of semen analysis to indicate a possible fertilization defect
Head: 4-5 um long x 2-3 um wide
Tail: 45 uL long
Midpiece: no remnant of cytoplasm

WHO criteria: > 30% normal
Kruger's or Strict Criteria: > 14% normal
WHO 5th: > 4% normal

10

Sperm Antibodies

- increase agglutination, decrease motility and viability
- decrease fertility
- caused by: testicular infection, vasectomy, harm to testicles, varicocele (enlargement of veins along the spermatic cord)