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Flashcards in Final Exam 2021-2022 Deck (50)
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1

Environmental science is a study of which types of interactions between humans and the environment?
a. how humans use natural resources
b. how human beings relate to the nonliving environment
c. how human actions alter the environment
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

2

Which of the following is studied in environmental science?
a. interactions between living organisms and their nonliving environment
b. impact of humans on the environment
c. interactions between organisms
d. all of the above

b. impact of humans on the environment

3

Using economic considerations of resource use, the law of supply and demand describes the
a. availability of abundant resources.
b. relationship between the availability and the worth of resources.
c. worth of nonrenewable resources.
d. reduced demand resulting from lack of available resources.

b. relationship between the availability and the worth of resources.

4

Compared with their counterparts in developed countries, individuals in developing nations typically have a
a. higher standard of living.
b. larger ecological footprint.
c. shorter life span.
d. greater dependence on fossil fuels.

c. shorter life span.

5

Achieving a sustainable world is a goal that will depend on
a. responsible consumption by developed countries.
b. a higher standard of living in developing countries.
c. cooperation between governments, industry, and citizens.
d. both (a) and (c)

d. both (a) and (c)

6

What essential characteristic does a good experiment have?
a. control group is given the experimental treatment.
b. A single variable is tested.
c. A control is used.
d. both (b) and (c)

d. both (b) and (c)

7

Why are mathematical models important?
a. They are especially useful in situations with many variables.
b. They can be used to create useful digital images.
c. They can represent how a system or process works.
d. all of the above

a. They are especially useful in situations with many variables.

8

In a scientific investigation, it is important that the number of objects or events being sampled be
a. a guess of how likely an unwanted outcome will occur.
b. large enough to give an accurate estimate for the whole population.
c. equal to the mean number of objects or events not sampled.
d. equal to the total statistical population.

b. large enough to give an accurate estimate for the whole population.

9

A good hypothesis is more than a guess because it
a. is based on intuition rather than observation.
b. states what is likely to happen.
c. makes logical sense
d. Both (b) and (c)

c. makes logical sense

10

Which of the following is not one of the physical layers of Earth?
a. mantle
b. core
c. asthenosphere
d. crust

c. asthenosphere

11

The energy released by an earthquake occurs in the form of
a. volcanic eruptions.
b. seismic waves.
c. faults.
d. magnitude.

b. seismic waves.

12

The melted rock that forms a volcano is called
a. mantle.
b. magma.
c. inner core.
d. convection.

b. magma.

13

What are wind and water erosion not likely to affect?
a. mountains
b. rocks
c. tides
d. soil

c. tides

14

Where is most of the fresh water on Earth located?
a. reservoirs and lakes
b. icecaps and glaciers
c. oceans
d. streams and tributaries

b. icecaps and glaciers

15

What is the ultimate source of energy for almost all organisms?
a. producers
b. consumers
c. the sun
d. bacteria

c. the sun

16

Which of these consumers might depend on a rabbit for its energy?
a. grasshopper
b. coyote
c. cow
d. horse

b. coyote

17

A consumer that eats only producers is called a(n)
a. omnivore
b. carnivore
c. autotroph
d. herbivore

d. herbivore

18

What term is used to describe a linear sequence in which energy is
transmitted from one organism to the next as each organism eats another
organism?
a. food web
b. food chain
c. trophic level
d. energy pyramid

b. food chain

19

Consumers are organisms that
a. eat only other animal species.
b. get their energy by eating other organisms.
c. are also known as self-feeders.
d. occupy an ecosystem’s lowest energy level.

b. get their energy by eating other organisms.

20

Which of these is a large reservoir of nitrogen that is unusable by most
organisms?
a. soil
b. atmosphere
c. ocean
d. space

b. atmosphere

21

Just before you reach the top of a mountain where there is year-round ice and snow, you would expect to see
a. cacti.
b. deciduous trees.
c. mahogany trees.
d. herbs, lichens, and mosses.

d. herbs, lichens, and mosses.

22

In a tropical rain forest, you would expect to find
a. lush, tall plants that require a lot of water.
b. short plants that require little water.
c. small trees, shrubs, and grasses.
d. cacti and shrubs that require little to no water.

a. lush, tall plants that require a lot of water.

23

Which of the following is true of tropical rain forests?
a. The soil is rich and supports a wide variety of plant and animal life.
b. They help regulate world climate and play vital roles in the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cycles.
c. Temperatures vary widely between wet and dry seasons.
d. The diversity in a tropical rain forest is exceeded only by that of the grasslands.

b. They help regulate world climate and play vital roles in the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cycles.

24

A temperate deciduous forest would likely contain
a. plants that require abundant rainfall and moderate temperatures.
b. plants with adaptations, such as rhizomes, to survive harsh winters.
c. plants with thick, fleshy, waxy stems to prevent water loss.
d. dwarf woody plants growing near the ground to absorb the soil’s heat.

b. plants with adaptations, such as rhizomes, to survive harsh winters.

25

Animals of the taiga have adaptations such as the ability to
a. change color to avoid predators.
b. find watering holes in the dry season.
c. give birth during the rainy season only.
d. prevent summertime water loss with their thick, scaly skin.

a. change color to avoid predators.

26

Which characteristics describe grassland biomes?
a. high species diversity, few trees, alternating rainy and dry seasons
b. susceptibility to fires, low to moderate rainfall, few to no trees
c. abundant rainfall year-round, extremely fertile soil, grazing animals
d. mild Mediterranean climate, high species diversity, and few trees

c. abundant rainfall year-round, extremely fertile soil, grazing animals

27

Which of the following describes the climate of the chaparral?
a. Mediterranean climate; hot, dry summers; mild, wet winters
b. desert-like climate; hot, dry summers; cool, dry winters
c. extremely wet climate; cold, wet winters; cool, rainy summers
d. relatively dry climate; mild, dry summers; cold, dry winters

a. Mediterranean climate; hot, dry summers; mild, wet winters

28

Adaptations of desert animals that help them survive in the hot, dry desert often include
a. searching for water at midday.
b. thin skin that readily absorbs water.
c. large, bulky size to retain body heat on cold nights.
d. searching for food at night.

d. searching for food at night.

29

Which of the following is not an environmental function of wetlands?
a. increasing runoff
b. absorbing and removing pollutants from water
c. trapping carbon that would otherwise be released into the air
d. controlling floods

a. increasing runoff

30

Which of the following is not characteristic of salt marshes and mangrove swamps?
a. Both provide habitats for wildlife.
b. Both are dominated by marsh grasses.
c. Both are found along coastal areas.
d. Both are threatened by development.

b. Both are dominated by marsh grasses.

31

Photosynthetic organisms are found mainly in shallow water due to the availability of
a. oxygen.
b. nutrients.
c. sunlight.
d. salt.

c. sunlight.

32

In the _________ zone, aquatic life is diverse and abundant.
a. benthic
b. eutrophic
c. littoral
d. plankton

c. littoral

33

In the _________ zone, the water is cool and dark.
a. benthic
b. eutrophic
c. littoral
d. plankton

a. benthic

34

What causes most coastal pollution in the United States?
a. lakes and ponds
b. industrial waste and sewage
c. over fishing
d. temperature changes

b. industrial waste and sewage

35

As they flow down a mountain to flatter ground, rivers generally become
a. wider.
b. warmer.
c. slower.
d. All of the above

d. All of the above

36

The number of wild horses per square kilometer in a prairie is the horse population’s
a. density.
b. dispersion.
c. size.
d. birth rate.

a. density.

37

If over a long period of time each pair of adults in a population had only two offspring and the offspring lived to reproduce, the population would
a. grow.
b. shrink.
c. remain the same.
d. disperse randomly.

c. remain the same.

38

Which of the following species has the highest reproductive potential?
a. rabbit
b. elephant
c. human
d. horse

a. rabbit

39

The carrying capacity of an environment for a particular species at a particular time is determined by the
a. number of individuals in the species.
b. distribution of the population.
c. reproductive potential of the species.
d. supply of the most limited resources.

d. supply of the most limited resources.

40

A bird that feeds at night and a bird that feeds during the day from the same flower is an example of
a. direct competition
b. mutualism
c. indirect competition
d. indirect commensalism

c. indirect competition

41

In which type of interaction between species does one species benefit by harming another species but not killing it?
a. predation
b. parasitism
c. mutualism
d. commensalism

b. parasitism

42

Which of the following examples would be least likely to be considered a symbiotic interaction?
a. A wren builds a nest in a cactus.
b. A yucca moth pollinates and lays eggs on yucca flowers.
c. A kit fox hunts and feeds on a kangaroo rat.
d. Bacteria in a fox’s digestive system help it digest food.

c. A kit fox hunts and feeds on a kangaroo rat.

43

Which of the following two species represent a relation-ship that has coevolved?
a. flowering plants and their pollinators
b. foxes and their coyote competitors
c. house cats and their prey
d. rabbits and their relatives

a. flowering plants and their pollinators

44

An increase in water-borne diseases could possibly be alleviated by
a. adequate sewage treatment facilities for growing populations.
b. very rapid growth of large cities.
c. sufficient fuel wood.
d. Both (a) and (b)

a. adequate sewage treatment facilities for growing populations.

45

Between 1880 and 1930 human population doubled due to
a. the Industrial Revolution.
b. a combination of high birth rates and lowered death rates.
c. improvements in societal infrastructure and services.
d. All of the above

d. All of the above

46

Countries that have entered the third stage of demographic transition are most probably characterized by
a. weak or developing economies.
b. death rates that far exceed birth rates.
c. societal conditions that favor smaller families.
d. populations with a high proportion of young people.

c. societal conditions that favor smaller families.

47

Which of the following is a reason that wood is considered a limited resource in many developing countries?
a. Wood is used in place of money to buy food.
b. Fuel wood allows people to purify their water by boiling it.
c. Excess wood is used to construct shantytowns.
d. People cut down trees faster than they can grow.

d. People cut down trees faster than they can grow.

48

What groups of organisms are most in danger of extinction?
a. those with small populations
b. those that migrate or need special habitats
c. those with large populations that breed quickly
d. both (a) and (b)

d. both (a) and (b)

49

What human activities have influenced recent extinction events?
a. habitat destruction
b. poaching
c. introducing exotic species
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

50

How did the CITES treaty reduce the slaughter of elephants?
a. It offered a bounty to tribal leaders for identifying poachers.
b. It banned imports and exports of all ivory worldwide.
c. It limited sales of ivory to the antique market.
d. both (a) and (c)

b. It banned imports and exports of all ivory worldwide.