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1

What are the 3 functions of the kidney?

Remove water, salts and products of protein metabolism from the blood

2

Which kidney lies slightly lower than the other and why?

the right is slightly lower
because right lobe of liver pushes it down

3

What 4 structures are transmitted through the hilum of the kidney

Renal Vein
Renal Artery
Ureter
Autonomic and Sensory nerves

4

What is the name for the expanded superior end of the ureter within hilum of kidney

Renal pelvis

5

What is the renal sinus filled with?

fat

6

The structures which enter the hilum of the kidney are collectively known as what/

renal pedicle

7

What is the blood supply of the kidney?

renal artery (from abdominal aorta)

8

what are extrahilar arteries?

accessory arteries which may originate from the abdominal aorta (above or below renal artery)

9

What drains the kidneys

Renal vein

10

True or false, the right renal vein drains an extensive region including suprarenal gland, gonad, diaphragm and body wall

False, the Left renal vein does all of that

11

What is the "anatomical nutcracker"

left renal vein and 3 part of duodenum may be compressed between aorta behind and superior mesenteric artery in front

12

what is the innervation of the kidneys? What makes up the plexus?

renal plexus
branches of: celiac plexus, aortic plexus, and direct branches from thoracic and lumbar splanchnics

13

What are the 4 layers covering the kidney

renal capsule (innermost)
perinephric fat
renal fascia
paranephric fat (outermost)

14

What are the 3 things that compose kidney stones

calcium oxalate
calcium phosphate
uric acid

15

What are the symptoms of kidney stones? What are some complications that can occur?

Dull ache in kidney while in the organ, then extremely painful once entering ureter
May become lodged while being passed

16

What are 3 risk factors for kidney stones

Being male
low fluid intake/dehydration
"stone belt" southeastern USA

17

Extracorcoreal shock-wave elithdripsy (ESWL) is a possible treatment for what?

Kidney stones

18

What is nephroptosis? Who is it more common in?

"floating kidney"
Kidney becomes hyper mobile and moves down within renal fascia
More common in very skinny people

19

What is the muscular tube connecting the kidney to the urinary bladder?

Ureter

20

The ureter has three constrictions where kidney stones can become lodged, what are they?

ureteropelvic junction
pelvic brim
where it enters the bladder

21

What are the 5 branches that supply blood to the ureter

renal a.
gonadal a.
aorta
common iliac a.
superior vesical a.

22

What 2 structures innervate the ureter

renal plexus
hypogastric plexus

23

What structure that lies on the superior aspect of the kidney is part of the endocrine system?

suprarenal gland

24

What are the 2 parts of the suprarenal gland

medulla
cortex

25

What are the 3 arteries supplying the suprarenal gland

superior, middle, and inferior suprarenal a.

26

What drains the suprarenal gland?

suprarenal vein

27

What two structures innervate the suprarenal gland

Celiac plexus
thoracic splanchnic nerves (sympathetics)

28

Where is kidney and suprarenal gland pain often referred to, why?

pain referred to paralumbar region
because receive innervation from T11-L2

29

What is the "psoas sign" what can a positive right psoas sign indicate?

Pain produced when thigh extended against resistance
positive right psoas sign suggests appendicitis

30

What percentage of people have a psoas minor?

60%