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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (119)
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1

Paleolithic period describes

Appearance of stone tools (stone age)

2

Lithic tool ages (oldest to youngest)

Olduwan
Achulean
Mousterian

3

Cerebral rubicon

Threshold established by Keith at 750cc designations what species can be placed into genus homo

4

Homo habilis

-Handy Man
-Appeared in E. Africa around 2 MYA
-Olduvai gorge & Turkana basin
-highly fragmentary materials

5

Oldowan tools (3 types)

Hammer stones- show percussion damage, smash into other rocks
Stone cores- sharp edge on one side
Stone flakes- flakes off stone cores for fine cutting

6

Oldowan appear before/after first known homo habilis remains

Before

7

Cranial dental differences different from austalopiths to Homo (OH 24 "twiggy")

Similar incisors & canines
Reduced molars & premolars
M3 smaller than M2
No sagittal crests
Slight post-orbital constriction

8

_____ first appears in H. Habilis

Modern shape to dental arcade (parabola)
AL 666-1

9

Post cranial traits of homo habilis

-Robust hand bones, BUT also fine gripping capability
-stout, adducted big toe
-some climbing

10

Leakey revised cerebral rubicon

Bipedality
Upper limb shorter than lower limb
Grasping thumb
600-1600 cc brain

11

Leakeys

-Olduvai discoveries- KNM-ER 1470 (1972)
-Established human evolutionary development in Africa

12

Homo rudolfensis (5) (as opposed to homo habilis)

-Larger flatter face
-larger brain (775 cc)
-larger molars + premolars

-trend toward modern human (except teeth)
-KNM-ER 1470

13

Homo rudolfensis (5)

-Larger flatter face
-larger brain (775 cc)
-larger molars & premolars
-trend toward modern human (except teeth)
-KNM-ER 1470

14

Single species hypothesis

-Brace & wolpoff
-super lumpers
-Human & close ancestors = comprehensive niche, only 1 species can exist at a time
-all variations in fossils from same period = intraspecific variation

15

Lumpers

Fewer species, intraspecific variation

16

Splitters

More species, interspecific variations

17

Evidence against single species hypothesis

More than 100cc difference in brain size
H rudolfensis = more gracile facial features

18

Interpretations of homo rudolfensis & homo habilis based on facts

KNM ER 1470 = homo rudolfensis, separate species
Homo habilis = ancestor of modern humans

19

What features distinguish the genus homo from other homini? (3)

1. Encephalization
2. Tool use
3. Reduced dentition and facial features

20

Adaptability

Ontogenetic adaptation
Developmental change over lifetime/childhood

21

Acclimatization

Plastic physiological change over minutes/hrs/weeks in response to environment

22

adaptation

Microevolutionary adaptation
Genetic change over generations, evolution

23

Adaptability

Ontogenetic adaptation
Developmental change over lifetime/childhood

24

Acclimatization

Plastic physiological change over minutes/hrs/weeks

25

Behavioral/cultural adaptation

Decisions
Unconstrained

26

Bergmann's rule

increase/decrease SA by changing volume

Smaller animals need more energy and diffuse more heat due to increase SA to volume ratio

27

Allen's Rule

increase/decrease SA by changing proportions (ex: more elongated body)

28

Sickle cell anemia protects against

Malaria

29

Lactose intolerance

Lack lactase enzyme that allow us to digest lactose, lactase persistent allele= autosomal dominant

30

3 main types of evidence of change in early homo lineage

"Homo erectus"
Anatomical changes
Geographic distribution
Evidence of culture