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1

ecology

study of house where we live (both place and interactions)

2

species

group of actually/potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated

3

actually/potentially interbreeding

biological species concept

4

natural population

geography, attraction, and reproductive cycles keep them separate

5

reproductively isolated

different times of reproduction

6

population

organisms of the same species occupying a particular place at a particular time

7

community definition

all individuals of species in a given area

8

levels of food pyramid

produces, consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, quarternary consumer

9

keystone species/top predator

quarternary consumers

10

10% rule

as you move up pyramid you only retain 10% of energy from previous level

11

5 level rule

in typical ecosystem, limited to 5 levels because original energy runs out

12

humans

omnivores (eat at multiple levels)
herbivores (vegetarians) get more energy

13

decomposers

throughout pyramid
break things down

14

ecosystem

community (biotic component) and its non-living surrounding (water and air) (abiotic component)

15

population growth formula

N = rX + I - E - D
r=reproductive capacity (how quickly pop. can grow)
X=initial #
I=immigration (coming out)
E=emmigration (leaving)
D=mortality factor (death)

16

carrying capacity determined by

limiting factors

17

limiting factors

density dependent
density independent

18

density dependent

food, disease, space, predators, etc.

19

density independent

weather, etc.

20

reproductive strategies

opportunistic species (r)
equilibrium species (K)

21

opportunistic species

many small young
rapid maturation
little parental care
reproduce only once
small body size
poor adult survival
ex: insects, fish (smaller), rats, rabbits

22

equilibrium species

maintain at carrying capacity
few large young
slow maturation
intense parental care
reproduce many times
large body size
good adult survival
ex: humans, oak trees
*most endangered species found in this category

23

community

symbiosis
competition
predation

24

symbiosis

close/intimate relationship between 2 species living in 1 area
mutualism
commensalism

25

mutualism

both species benefit
lichens (fungus and algae)

26

commensalism

one benefits, the other is unaffected
spanish moss and tree
remora and shark

27

competition

2 species compete with each other (typically have similar needs and compete for resources)

28

ecological niche

all physical, chemical, and biological needs of species
habitat occupied (where it lives) and roles it plays (what it does)

29

fundamental niche

environment occupied with no competition

30

realized niche

smaller part of fundamental niche based on competition