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1

plant taxonomy

rules used to put plants into categories

2

exact starting date

May 1, 1753
based on book published that day ("Plantarum")

3

plants characterized by

number of stamen and carpel

4

how did botany explode

every ship had naturalist that would record new plants across world

5

levels of Linean system

domain
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genera/genus
species

6

characteristics of fungi

have cell walls (made of cellulose or chitin)
somewhat related to plants, mostly considered animal though
artificial group (many evolutionary lines that converge)
ubiquitous (found everywhere)
heterotrophic (saprophytic) (live off dead matter but not parasitic)
all made of tubes (hyphae)
reproduction by spores

7

3 that differentiate fungi from each other

kind of tube (hyphae)
what cell walls made of
how they reproduce

8

septate hyphae

half walls in tube

9

non-septate/coenocytic hyphae

no walls in tube

10

P-chytridiomycota

major slayers of amphibians (whole species would disappear)
unicellular, parasitic, and aquatic
spread from affected ponds to unaffected ponds by botanists studying them

11

P-zygomycota

bread molds (black dots)
very simple creatures
capable of reproducing itself
spores=haploid
sporangium (contains spores), sporangiophore (stalk), rhizoids
when sporangium hit with light energy spores shot off, cow eats, poops out and spores spread to new area

12

P-ascomycota

sac fungi
ascus, perithecium, cleistothecium
truffles, morels, yeast, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and ergot

13

ascus

long skinny ascomycota with alternating +/- cells

14

perithecium

circular in shape with cells lining edge of inside with small hole at top

15

cleistothecium

circular in shape with cells lining edge of inside (same as perithecium but completely close--no hole)

16

truffles

hunted by trained pigs
they emit pheromones identical to pig pheromones
pig eats and spreads spores after eating and digesting and excreting

17

morels

look like brain on a stick

18

yeast

single celled
usually reproduce by buds
makes bread rise by trapping CO2 bubbles in gluten

19

dutch elm disease

caused by ascomycota brought in by pollen on elm trees

20

chestnut blight

trees in china immune but carry it
US trees not immune
US trees adapted so 99% american but with immunity of asian trees

21

ergot

fungus that attacks grains (especially rye)
invade grain and turn it into factory that produces spores
leads to ergotism (fingers and toes feel like burning bc they contain vasoconstrictors)
also produces LSD which can lead to hallucinations

22

basidiomycota

club fungus
hymenomycetes, gastromycetes, tellomycetes, deuteromycetes

23

hymenomycetes

edible, everyday mushrooms

24

gastromycetes

spores inside basidiocarp
puff balls (spores spread when smooshed--shot out through hole)
flies attracted bc smell (land and get foot stuck. when try to leave they take chunk and spread spores)

25

tellomycetes

use somebody else's parts to reproduce
smuts and rusts

26

smuts

autoecious
has 1 host
corn smut (fungus takes over corn chambers)

27

rusts

heteroecious
2+ hosts
ex: wheat and barberry

28

deuteromycetes

fungi imperfecti (no sexual rep.--spores produced asexually)
put in own catergory bc can't reproduce together
basidiomycota, zygomycota, and ascomycota that have lost sexual abilities

29

deuteromycetes functions

help in cheese process, antibiotics, soy products production, ring worm (human and animal), athletes foot, and jock itch

30

lichens

combo of fungi and protista
mutualistic organisms
fungi: great at absorbing water and minerals
usually found in harsh envirionments
sensitive to pollution (if found you know air is healthy)
classified based on shapes (fruticose, foliose,crustose)