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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (104):
1

What does CRISPR stand for?

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats

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____________: enzymes that cut DNA at specific target sequences

Restriction enzymes

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___________: enzymes that join DNA together

DNA ligase

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____________: enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from nucleotides and template strand

DNA polymerase

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Example of DNA polmerase

Taq polymerase

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__________: a small piece of DNA taken from a virus, plasmid, etc. that can be stably maintained in an organism and into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes

Cloning vector

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Why don't restriction enzymes cut host bacteria's DNA?

Methylation at target sites

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CRISPR verses restriction enzymes: which is innate and which is acquired in bacteria?

Restriction enzymes = innate; CRISPR = adaptive

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Where in the CRISPR locus are the viral genomic fragments inserted?

Next to the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) 5'-NGG-3' sequence

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Genes in the CRISPR locus that encode for nucleases

CRISPR-associated genes (cas)

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___________: engineered molecule that combines functions of crRNA and tracrRNA

Single guide RNA (sgRNA)

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____________: transcription of CRISPR locus

crRNA

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Gain of function CRISPR editing requires....?

A donor template

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Example of CRISPR use in pigs

CD163 gene was modified to eliminate binding sequence for porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) without impairing it's immune function

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Example of CRISPR use in corn

CRISPR introduced a stronger promoter into the ARGOS8 gene to increase drought resistance

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Alternative uses for CRISPR (not gene knockout and editing)

Turning genes off and on, adding epigenetic markers, and localizing a specific sequence

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Alternative uses for CRISPR depend on what?

dCas9 or dead Cas9 (inactivated Cas9 nuclease activity)

18

Coined "commotion of the brain” resulting from blow to head (loss of speech, hearing, sight)

Hippocrates (Greece, 5th century BC)

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Coined "cerebral concussion”: transient los of function without physical damage

Rhazes (Persian physician, 10th century AD)

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Proposed that “brain commotion” was due to bruising of the brain on inside of the skull; hypothesis developed through dissection of human cadavers

de Carpi (Italian anatomist and physician, 16th century AD)

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Paper: “Punch Drunk” suggested mental and behaviour problems in boxers as a result of multiple concussions

Harrison Martland (American forensic pathologist, 1928)

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Confirmed punch drunk hypothesis in paper "the aftermath of boxing" using autopsies to show visible brain damage in boxers brain

J.A.N. Corsellis (British neuropathologist, 1973)

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Coined term "dementia pugilistica"

J.A.N. Corsellis

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Coined CTE following autopsies of NFL player's brains

Bennet Omalu (Nigerian-American neuropathologist, 2004-2005)

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Physical brain damage done by concussions (4)

1. Stretching and sheering of axons causing leakage of ions across membranes and
2. release of tau proteins and the accumulation of tau protein tangles
3. damage to blood-brain barrier and release of brain protein S100B into the blood
4. Reduced cerebral blood flow

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Key correlation found in subconcussive injuries

Number of subconcussive hits and serum 100B levels

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Low selenium associated with

several cancers

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Low vit A associated with

Increased risk of infectious disease

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Riboflavin (Vit B2) associated with

Confers resistance to infectious disease in mice

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Low vit B6 associated with

impaired development and differentiation of B and T cells

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Effects of Vit C on immune function

Unknown

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Vit D known to be involved in

Fighting mycobacterium tuberculus

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Low Vit D makes you more prone to

HIV and the flu

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Vit E supplementation caused

Enhanced antibody response to some vaccines

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Low Zinc affects

Functioning of lymphocytes

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High cortisol levels correlated with (in research)

Lower antibody response to infection, lower T cell function

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A measurable outcome that is not a clinical outcome, but may correlate with one

Surrogate outcome

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Examples of case series (2)

1. John Snows and broad street cholera outbreak (start of epidemiology)
2. legionnaires disease outbreak at American legion convention

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Define epidemiology

the study of the causes and spread of disease

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Term for a retrospective epidemiological study

Case-control studies

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Example of case-control study (2)

1. GRID and rare cancer in young gay men
2. Mouth cancer and people using bleach for mouth wash

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Term for a prospective epidemiological study

Cohort studies

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Innate defenses (5)

Barriers
Phagocytes
NK cells
Inflammation
Fever

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Adaptive defenses (3)

B cells
helper T cells
cytotoxic T cells

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Communication components of immune system (2)

Cytokines
Antigen presentation

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Who pioneered vaccinations and with what disease?

Edward Jenner, used cowpox to vaccinate against smallpox

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Who developed polio vaccine?

Salk

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Examples of historical resistance to vaccination (3)

1. Switzerland 1883 repeal of compulsory smallpox vaccine
2. France 1990s media scare that Hep B vaccine caused MS
3. Nigeria 2000s fear that polio vaccine caused sterility in children; resulted in fatwa condemning vaccination

49

Why was thimerosol controversial?

It's a mercury-containing compound that was used as a preservative; has been phased out after public back-lash but no evidence of harm

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What does the MMR vaccine protect against?

Measles, mumps, and rubella

51

Define opsonin

A molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking a cell

52

Properties of adaptive defences (4)

1. specificity
2. diversity
3. self/non-self recognition
4. memory

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Term for a set of similar antibodies

Immunoglobulin class

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Two regions of an antibody molecule

1. Variable region
2. Constant region

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________ region: different in each antibody

Variable

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_________ region: same in each Ig class

Constant

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Which cells act to poke holes in plasma membrane of target cell?

Cytotoxic T cells

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Antibodies that have different epitopic specificities and bind to different epitopes of the same antigen

Polyclonal antibodies

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Antibodies that all have the same epitopic specificity and bind one epitope only

Monoclonal antibodies

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A and B antigens on RBCs are ______ attached to ______ and ______

Oligiosaccharide chains attached to glycolipids and glycoproteins

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Type A blood: has _ antigen and produces anti-_ antibodies

A antigen; anti-B antibodies

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Type B blood: has _ antigen and produces anti-_ antibodies

B antigen; anti-A antibodies

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Type AB blood: has _ antigen and produces anti-_ antibodies

A and B antigens; no anti-A or anti-B antibodies

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Type O blood: has _ antigen and produces anti-_ antibodies

No antigen; produces anti-A and anti-B antibodies

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Universal donor

O

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Universal acceptor

AB

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Two stages of photosynthesis

1. light creates ATP and NADPH
2. ATP and NADPH force hydrogen atoms onto C02 to form glucose

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What are the primary molecules being burned in raw biomass?

Cellulose and lignin in plant cell walls

69

Uncrewed probes (5)

1. flybys
2. orbiters
3. landers
4. rovers
5. sample return missions

70

Description of Mars 3-4 billion years ago (4)

1. geological activities and volcanoes
2. liquid core producing magnetic field
3. thick atmosphere of CO2 and water vapour protected from solar winds and cosmic rays by magnetic field
4. higher temperatures
5. large bodies of water

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Significant martian meteorite found in Antarctica around 1996

Allan Hills 84001 (ALH 84001)

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What was significant about ALH 84001 (3)

1. organic molecules (polycyclic hydrocarbons)
2. magnetite with possible biogenic origin
3. shapes that looked like nanobacteria

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First probe to land on mars in 1976

Viking landers

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Preformed GCMS and labeled release of carbon 14

Viking landers

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Detected methane in varying trace amounts (2)

1. Mars express orbiter
2. Curiosity rover

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Recurring slope linae

Streaks of dark discolouration on mars that had previously suggested period liquid water flow on Mars

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______ Lander discovered subsurface water ice, snow, and perchlorate

The Phoenix lander

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Detected a transient spike in methane in 2013-2014

The curiosity rover

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Europa

Moon of Jupiter with surface layer of water ice over a deep salty ocean of liquid water with geologically active seafloor

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Enceladus

Moon of Saturn with an ocean of salty liquid water underneath an icy surface crust

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Moon of Saturn with 100+ geysers shooting water ice and vapour into space near it's south pole

Enceladus

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Titan

Moon of Saturn with a dense atmosphere rich in nitrogen, with rocky surface layer and rivers/lakes of hydrocarbons; has a methane cycle similar to earth's hydrological cycle

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Telescope that will be the successor to the Hubble in searching or biosignitures of life in atmospheres of extrasolar planets

James Webb Space Telescope

84

Fermi paradox

If there's nothing special about us and how we arose as a life form, where is everybody?

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Copernican principle

Our place in the universe isn't special

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Enzyme that adds nucleotides to the end of a pre-existing polynucleotide strand based on a template strand

DNA polymerase

87

UV light shone on DNA-______ ______ complex fluoresces

DNA-ethidium bromide complex

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PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

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Meiosis is a _______ division

Reductional

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An inherited character for which different traits are present in a population

Polymorphism

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A location on a specific chromosome that has appreciable variation in a population

DNA polymorphism

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Sites in a genome where a short DNA sequence (15-100 base pairs) is repeated over a distance of 100-20,000 bp

Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region

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Sites in a genome where a short DNA sequence (2-9bp) is repeated 7-40x

Short tandem repeats (STR) regions

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_______: used if only a small amount of DNA is availible

STR loci

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Equation used to predict the probability of a match between two unrelated people

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation

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Assumes that the probability of a random DNA match equates the probability of innocence

Prosecutor's fallacy

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First use of DNA to solve a crime, exonerate an innocent person, and first use of a DNA dragnet

Pitchfork case

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DNA exoneration overturned bite mark analysis

Roy Brown case

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Used fake blood samples in tubes in arm

John Schneeberger

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Fact-collection and argument driven by an assumed conclusion

Motivated reasoning

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Favouring evidence that supports a conclusion already held

Confirmation bias

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Logical fallacy of attacking the person making the argument in attempts to discredit their argument

Ad hominem fallacy

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Logical fallacy of assuming something to be true/false because of who said it

Genetic fallacy

104

Logical fallacy of assuming that if an expert in ABC says XYZ, then XYZ must be true

Argument from authority