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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Questions Deck (21):

The maturation of a B cell in the bone marrow can be compared to
A. Going to school and learning new things
B. Reading a murder mystery and figuring out who did it
C. Dealing a five-card hand from a deck of cards
D. Suing your former business partner in court
E. Besieging an enemy city during wartime



What is clonal selection?
A. The binding, by an antigen, of some antibodies by not others
B. The repeated divisions of a lymphocyte that has been specifically stimulated by interaction with a pathogen
C. The preference of one type of T cell to interact with another type of T cell
D. The decision made by the immune system to respond to the more serious threats and to let less serious threats pass
E. The ability of defensive barriers to allow some cell types to cross but not others



In the famous OJ Simpson case, the jury rejected the DNA evidence presented by the prosecution because of

Their suspicions about the physical handling of the evidence


In the DNA barcoding of animals, a portion of the cox-1 gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene) is used. Why?

The gene sequence varies little among members of a species, but varies more among different species


Biofuels and other alternative energy technologies have not yet become the dominant components in the world’s energy mix due mainly to

Unfavourable energy market conditions


Which of the following is NOT one of our innate defences?
A. T cell receptor
B. The inflammatory response
C. Skin
D. Phagocytes
E. Mucus membranes



Which of the following is NOT an example of raw biomass used as an energy source?
A. Wood in a wood-burning stove
B. Wood pellets
C. Sugar cane bagasse
D. Bioethanol
E. Animal manure



In the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), why is the thermal cycle needed?

It melts the newly-synthesized DNA double helix after each round of DNA synthesis


At one STR site on chromosome 12, a woman has a repeat pattern of (6,7). Her child has a repeat pattern of (4,6). The woman claims that a certain man is the biological father. The man’s repeat pattern at this site is (4,8)., What does this information tell you?

It is possible, but by no means certain, that the child is the offspring of the man in question


The DNA evidence of a relationship between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings consists of

A match between the Y chromosomes of a patrilineal descendant of Jefferson’s paternal uncle and the Y chromosome of a patrilineal descendent of Sally Hemings


In the reading “The great carbon scam”, what is the dishonest practice the title refers to?

The practice of counting the use of certain carbon feedstocks for energy, such as wood, as carbon neutral


In the reading “DNA forensics”, the use of mitochondrial DNA profiling is suggested for

Cases where the DNA is old and degraded


The part of an antigenic molecule that is recognized by an antibody



The type of cell that secretes antibodies

Plasma B cell


An inherited condition for which different values (traits) are present in a population



The enzyme that is used to make more DNA in the PCR technique, specifically

Taq polymerase


A cost or benefit of an economic transaction that accrues to a party not involved in that transaction



Heating organic material such as wood without oxygen so that no combustion takes place



What is the prosecutors fallacy in the context of DNA evidence?

Equating the possibility of a random DNA match with the probability that the defendant is innocent (ie. 1 in a million chance of a random match, so a 1 in a million chance they are innocent)


How can corn plants be used as biofuel?

Burning refuse, making bioethanol via fermentation


How can oilseed (eg. Soybeans or canola) be used as biofuel?

Oil extracted from plants can be combusted to release energy stored in fatty-acids