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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (39):

What are the fundamental ways of achieving competitive advantage?

1. Changing the product: introduce new products or services or enhance current products or services

2. Business processes: Use technology to lock in customers, reduce costs, and create entry barriers for competitors in the market


What are the business functions and functional systems?

Business functions are primary and supporting activities that businesses do to operate.

Functional systems are information systems that support these activities.


How can business processes be improved?

IT enables firms to innovate and make significant change. Outside of technology, by adding resources, adding increased specialization, and changing/eliminating non-productive activities.


What are the challenges of implementing business process changes?

1. There is a lot of detailed work to be done to determine what to change and make an effective decision.

2. Hard to estimate the business value that will emerge from business process changes.

3. Many people like the idea of change but do not want to change.


What is the importance of industry standard processes?

Industry standard processes allow there to be consistency across software so that software vendors can provide applications that work across the majority of organizations.


What are ERP Systems?

Enterprise resource planning systems:
1. Support all the primary business processes as well as the human resource and accounting support processes

2. Enterprise-wide systems that integrate sales, order, inventory, manufacturing, and customer service activities

3. Provide software, pre-designed databases, procedures, and job descriptions for organization-wide process integration


What are CRM systems?

Customer relationship management systems support the business process of attracting, selling, managing, delivering, and supporting customers. It integrates the four phases of the customer life cycle: marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, and lose/churn.


What are SCM systems?

Supply chain management systems are inter-organizational systems that enable companies to efficiently handle the flow of goods from suppliers to customer.


What challenges do managers face when making decisions?

Information overload, data quality, rationality is difficult to define.


What is OLTP and how does it support decision making?

Online transaction processing systems are systems that collect data electronically and processing the transactions online.


What are OLAP and the data resource challenge?

The data resource challenge can be defined as the inability to use data collected by OLTP's to improve decision making.

Online Analytics Processing systems help make data useful for decision making.


What are BI Systems and how do they provide competitive advantage?

A business intelligence systems is a system that provides information for improving decision making.

5 Examples:
1. Group Decision Support Systems
2. Reporting Systems
3. Data-mining Systems
4. Knowledge Management systems
5. Expert systems


What are the purpose and components of a data warehouse?

Purpose is to extract and clean data from operational systems and other sources and to store and catalogue that data for processing by BI tools.


What is a data mart and how does it differ from a data warehouse?

A data mart is a data collection that is created to address the needs of a particular business function, problem, or opportunity.

Data marts are like retail stores to data warehouses which are like distributors.


What are typical data-mining applications?

Data mining is the application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data and to make classifications and predictions.


What is e-commerce and how is it used?

The buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer networks.


What is social networking and how is it enabled and affected by IS/IT?

Social networking is the process by which individuals use relationships to communicate with each others using social networks.


What is Web 2.0

Refers to the integration of products and services including smartphones, user created content, social networking, locations and context-based services, and dynamic marketplaces.


How can information systems be acquired?

1. Buy it and use it as is
2. Buy it and customize it
3. Rent / lease it
4. Build it yourself
5. Outsource it


What are IT projects and what does PMBOK mean?

An IT project is a temporary endeavour to create an IT product, service or result.

The PMBOK is Project Management Body of Knowledge and is a book of standards and practices in managing projects.


What should you know about IT operations and IT projects?

IT Operations: The delivery of service, maintenance, protection, and management of IT infrastructure.

IT Projects: The renewal and adaption of IT infrastructure is normally accomplished through projects.


Why are IT projects so risky?

1. Most IT project definitions are not easy to graphically represent.
2. Lack of a good model is an important risk
3. Good estimates are difficult to develop because the technology is continually changing.
4. Being able to monitor progress is challenging

Risks inherent in projects:
1. Lack of experience
2. Lack of support
3. Lack of participation
4. Unclear and uncertain project requirements
5. High level of technical complexity.


What is an SDLC?

The systems development life cycle is a classic process used to acquire information system.

1. Systems investigation
2. Systems analysis
3. Systems design
4. Programming and testing
5. Implementation
6. Operations and maintenance


How are information systems designed, implemented, and maintained?

Design each component by developing alternatives, evaluating each of those alternatives against the requirements, and then selecting among those alternatives.

Implementation includes building, testing, and converting the users to the new system.

Maintenance is either to fix the system or adapt it to changes in the requirements.


What is outsourcing, and what are application service providers?

Outsourcing is the process of hiring another organization to build your information systems.

Application service providers on the other hand provide applications on a fee-for-service basis.


How is the IT department organized?

Manager: CIO

Technology - investigates new technologies and determines how the organization can benefit from them

Operations - manages computer infrastructure

Development - Manages projects that acquire new information systems and maintains existing information systems

Outsourcing Relations - monitors service levels and focuses on developing good relations with outsourcing vendors

Data Administration - Protects data and information assets by establishing data standards and data management practices and policies


What is IT Architecture?

The basic framework for all the computers, systems, and information management that support organizational services.


What is alignment, why is it important, and why is it difficult?

Alignment is matching organizational objectives with IT architecture.

Communication between business and IT executives can be difficult.


What is information systems governance?

The development of consistent, cohesive management policies and verifiable internal processes for information technology and related services.


What is an information systems audit, and why should you care about it?

An examination and verification of a company's information resources that are used to collect, store, process, and retrieve information.


What is Green IT, and why should you care about it?

Using IT resources to better support the triple bottom line for organizations which includes ecological and social performance.


What is identify theft?

Identity theft involves stealing, misrepresenting, or hijacking the identity of another person or business and provides an effective way to commit other crimes.


What is PIPEDA?

The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act is intended to balance an individuals right to the privacy of his or her personal information with an organizations need to collect, use, and share that personal information for business purposes.


What types of security threats do organizations face?

1. Human error and mistakes
2. Malicious human activity
3. Natural events and disasters

Types of threats:
1. Unauthorized data disclosure
2. Incorrect data modification
3. Faulty service
4. Denial of service
5. Loss of infrastructure


How can technical safeguards protect against security threats?

1. idenfitication and authentication
2. Encryption and firewalls
3. Malware protection


How can data safeguards protect against security threats?

1. Database administration
2. Data administration

Examples of safeguards:
1. Encrypted data
2. Backup copies
3. Physical security


How can human safeguards protect against security threats?

1. Positions definitions
2. Hiring and screening
3. Dissemination and Enforcement
4. Termination


What is disaster preparedness?

Preparing for possible natural disasters through appropriate locations and backups.


How should organizations respond to security incidents?

1. Have a plan in place
2. Provide centralized reporting
3. Specific responses
1. Speed
2. Preparation Pays
3. Don't make the problem worse
4. Practice