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The 3 components of prejudice?

- Cognitive: beliefs about the attitude object (often stereotypes)
- Affective: strong feelings about the group (usually negative)
- Behavioural: behaving in a negative way towards group / individual (discrimination)


List the origins of prejudice.

- Parenting
- Societal norms
- Histories of conflict
- Transformative personal experiences
- Evolutionary forces
- Symbolic threats
- Practical threats
- Desire to release dominancce
- Desire to legitimise dominance
- Pseudo-science / eugenics


Discuss 'parenting' in relation to prejudice.

- Prejudiced people had disciplinarian parents, results in both hating and loving parents >> guilt and fear leads displacing hatred onto weaker others
- This view is out of vogue, but views of prejudiced parents may play a part


Discuss 'societal norms' in relation to prejudice.

- Prevailing view, e.g., last 20yrs has seen a change in views on SSM


Discuss 'histories of conflict' in relation to prejudice.

- Nations / groups with history of conflict often have prejudiced views towards each other, e.g., Japanese prejudice during WWII; slavery in Sth America


Discuss 'transformative personal experiences' in relation to prejudice.

- Personal experience can cause quick transformation of views; easier to recall; e.g., positive encounter with gay person changes SSM view; bad experience with Asian boss results in prejudice view to all Asians


Discuss 'evolutionary forces' in relation to prejudice.

- DNA has evolved to protect our tribe; innate suspicion of 'others' as in early times never met other races
- Smoke detector analogy: smoke detectors are extra sensitive so they don't fail to respond to actual fire; so too humans consistently err to minimise potential potential costs to reproductive fitness via mistrust of outsiders


Discuss 'symbolic threats' in relation to prejudice.

- Different customs


Discuss 'practical threats' in relation to prejudice.

- Taking jobs, etc; e.g., fears in Nazi Germany
- Realistic conflict theory: intergroup aggression caused by competition for scarce resources; when there are mutually exclusive goals (only one group can win) then intergroup relations deteriorate; e.g., Robbers' boys camp experiment


Discuss 'desire to release frustration' in relation to prejudice.

- Frustration aggression theory: aggression is caused by feelings of frustration (heat, overcrowding, economic hardship); e.g., higher the price of cotton in Sth of America = less lynchings


Discuss 'desire to legitimise dominance' in relation to prejudice.

- When disproportionately in charge, want to keep it that way
- Legitimising ideologies: individualism / meritocracy; equity and reverse discrimination; cultural defense; host-guest arguments (our country so immigrants should be polite, etc)


Discuss 'pseudo-science / eugenics' in relation to prejudice.

- Bullshit like "negros more related to apes than white people" and other Nazi propaganda


Outline the stereotype content model.

- Low / high competence; Low / high warmth
- Depending on where group is on spectrum of warmth and competence, attract different responses
- Low competence / High warmth: paternalistic stereotype; low status, not competitive; e.g., housewives, elderly, disabled
- High competence / High warmth: admiration; high status, not competitive; e.g., ingroup, close allies
- Low competence / Low warmth: contemptuous stereotype; low status, competitive; e.g., poor people, welfare recipients
- High competence / Low warmth: envious stereotype; high status, competitive; e.g., Asians, Jews, rich people, feminists


Discuss the history of women in Australia.

1960s: first bank teller; allowed in public service; arbitration commission endorses equal pay
1970s: granted loans w/o male guarantor; rape in marriage a criminal offence


What is hostile sexism?

- An antagonistic attitude toward women, who are often viewed as trying to control men through feminist ideology or sexual seduction
- Directed towards women who stray from traditional paths: career women, feminists, athletes, lesbians


What is benevolent sexism?

- Attitudes that put traditional women on pedestals, reinforcing their subordination


Discuss levels of hostile and benevolent sexism in richer vs poorer nations.

- Higher levels of both in poorer nations
- Can argue that being in a richer nation promotes generosity as our moral circles expand
- Can also argue that lower levels of sexism help drive the wealth


Give a example of how sexism may be decreasing.

- Study in mid-60s had students evaluate identical written pieces: woman's essay downgraded relative to man's
- Since late 80s this effect has disappeared
- Positive stereotypes of women emerging (Lisa Simpson)
- More support for gender equity in work


What is meant by the association of 'think manager - think male'?

- Perceived incompatibility between beliefs of what it means to be a good manager and what it means to be female
- Many male managers remain sceptical of women's ability to lead
- Female leaders receive less favourable evaluations for identical behaviour


What is the glass cliff?

- Women being given leadership roles, such as corporate execs and political leaders, during periods of crisis or downturn, when the chance of failure is highest
- Women on glass cliff: in spotlight more; likelihood they will fail; blamed for negative outcome that isn't their fault


Describe the study by Goff et al. (2008) of White Ps interacting with two White or two Black partners on the topic of “love and relationships” or “racial profiling".

Ps set chairs further away for black partners, esp when discussing racial profiling.


Describe the study by Weitz (1972) of White Ps recording a message for another student.

- Measured anticipated liking (verbal) and vocal cues (non-verbal) and found negative correlations b/t verbal rating and measure of voice warmth for black student; non-racist whites over-compensate due to guilt


List the types of racism uncovered in a study of Aboriginal Australians.

- Deliberate direct comments
- Jokes and taunts
- Threats
- Ignoring
- Segregation and avoidance
- Assault
- Discrimination


Outline the perceptions of racial bias in the US from the 1950s to the 2000s.

- Bs and Ws rating anti-b bias have both decreased, but W more than B
- Bs and Ws rating anti-w bias have both increased, but W significantly more than B


Is prejudice decreasing in the US?

- Since 1970s, W ppl more willing to have B friends, neighbours, colleagues (since 1949) but still not that keen on B family via marriage
- Increase in ethnic minority groups in non-stereotypical roles in media
- Increased ethnic minority groups in professions and managerial positions
- Near universal awareness that it’s not OK to be racist


Describe the study by Sigall and Page (1971) re W American Ps rating both B and W character traits.

- Had to rate the extent of character traits of W and B ppl, either by questionnaire (Q) or while hooked up to fake lie detector (LD / bogus pipeline)
- Character traits: honest, lazy, stupid, happy-go-lucky
- Honest: B more honest in Q; W more honest in LD
- Lazy: B less lazy in Q and more lazy in LD
- Stupid: B much smarter in Q and much more stupid in LD
- Happy-go-lucky: B much less happy-go-lucky in Q and much more in LD


Describe the study by Vanman et al (1997) re spontaneous non-verbal behaviour.

- Used electromyography to measure facial muscles
- White Ps viewed slides of B & W ppl and imagined interactions with them
- Self-report pro-B bias
- But more activity in frown muscles to B photos


What is an implicit association test?

A measure to detect the strength of a person's automatic association between mental representations of objects or concepts in memory.


Discuss IAT in relation to prejudice.

- Meta-analysis in 2009 of 122 studies found power of self-report measures was low and IAT measures high, esp for interracial and intergroup behaviour
- Meta-analysis in 2013 found IATs poor predictors of prejudice (other than brain activity), and no better than explicit measures


Discuss the changing nature of prejudice.

- Contemporary socialisation that prejudice is bad; this conflicts with ingrained attitudes and modern egalitarian values
- Prejudice and discrimination now more covert


Name the three theoretical approaches to covert prejudice.

- Modern (or symbolic) prejudice
- Ambivalent prejudice
- Aversive prejudice


Discuss modern racism.

- Negative feelings about ethnic minorities blend with modern values and ethics to justify prejudice sentiments
- To reflect this subtle racism a 'modern racism scale' was devised; e.g., rather than Qs "I would mind if an Asian joined my family" it's "Asian Australians receive more economic help than they deserve
- Study found many students score low on old-fashioned racism, but symbolic racism was evident; e.g., agree that govt assistance for Aboriginal communities is unwarranted


Discuss ambivalent racism.

- W ppl harbour both pro-B and anti-B sentiment
- Feel sympathy and support for B, but also resentment
- +ve cues of +ve aspects of W perception result in extremely +ve responses; same for -ve
- Law school application study: +ve credentials of applicants - B viewed more favourably than W; weak credentials - B viewed more -vely


Discuss aversive racism.

- W ppl maintain non-prejudice self-image and beliefs but subconsciously harbour -ve feelings towards B ppl and discrimination leaks out when behaviour can be justified as non-racist


Outline evidence for aversive racism.

- W Ps filling in questionnaire alone or with 2 others, hear person have accident; equal numbers helped W person having accident; alone helped B person but with others didn't help as much; justify actions re B person that others were helping so they didn't have to rather than racist
- Review of studies of ppl helping; 50% more helped ingroup; W Ps moderated by context - face-to-face 33% showed bias, no face-to-face 75% bias
- Other studies: neutral or +ve then favour minority, when -ve then more hostile to outgroup; e.g., B & W job candidates same +ve traits except cheats on wife - B rated lower than W


Outline the study of extrovert and introvert telephone interviews in relation to self-fulfilling prophecies.

- Interviewers told person on phone was either E or I; interviewers chose Qs from list that were either skewed to E or I
- Follow-up study, Ps rated interviewees, those in E group were rated E and those in I group rated I; i.e., the expectancies of the interviewers created a reality; or the way someone treats you, changes you


Outline the study of teachers and students' IQ in relation to self-fulfilling prophecies.

- IQ test given to kids, teachers told 20 (randomly chosen) were 'bloomers' w/ development potential
- Follow-up 1yr later, bloomers had academic gain over others; the way teachers treated kids changed their learning


Outline the study of W and B job interviews in relation to self-fulfilling prophecies.

- W Ps interviewed W and B applicants
- W interviewees made more speech errors, engaged less and shorter interviews with B applicants
- Follow-up study: when W applicants were interviewed with the B style the W ppl were rated as having performed worse; the way they were interviewed constrained how they responded


What is stereotype threat?

- When stigmatised groups are conscious that other ppl might treat them stereotypically, they feel anxious and their performance is impeded.
- Being made aware of something that you are stereotypically related to makes you conform to that stereotype.


Discuss Jane Elliott's blue eyes / brown eyes experiment.

- Divided kids into groups of brown eyes and blue eyes
- One day blue eyes were inferior and vice versa the next day
- Both groups performed worse on group activities when they were the stigmatised group, even when they'd performed the activity before; all kids reported feeling "stupider" when in the inferior group


Discuss Steele and Anderson's study of B and W students doing IQ or lab exercise tests, in relation to stereotype threat.

- Ps told it was a 'very difficult test' that was 'diagnostic IQ test' or 'just a lab exercise'
- Had to complete ambiguous word fragments
- B Ps told IQ test rather than lab exercise revealed race-related anxieties on word task (race, inferior, etc) AND dis worse on the test


Discuss the study by Spencer et al (1999) of men and women doing math tests, in relation to stereotype threat.

- Consistent with the stereotype, men did better than women on the test.
- Follow-up: Ps did two tests, one they were told that sexes typically perform differently and one told the test typically did not reveal sex differences; men did better in first test, no differences in the latter test


Discuss the study by Yeung & von Hippel (2008) on stereotype threat and driving performance.

- When told driving simulation was to determine if women really are worse drivers than men (i.e., stereotype threat condition) women did much worse when not told this
- More women hit pedestrian in simulation in threat condition than no threat condition


Discuss the study by Stone et al (1999) on stereotype threat and sporting ability.

- W and B Ps perform sports task; told test of 'natural ability' or 'sports intelligence'
- B perform better in natural ability; W perform better in sports intelligence


Reasons for stereotype effect?

- Anxiety
- However, self-report measures of anxiety are low
- But, more subtle measures of anxiety are evident: blood pressure, observed nervousness, non-verbal anxiety


Discuss the study by Bosson et al (2004) on stereotype threat and men playing with kids.

- Gay or straight men playing w/ kids
- Sexuality primed in half the Ps
- Neutral observers rated Ps for signs of nervousness and childcare performance
- Gay mens' childcare performance was rated better in the no prime C and worse in the prime C
- Gay men displayed considerably higher signs of nervousness in the prime C and much lower in no prime
- Self-report: gay and straight Ps did not differ in the extent to which they said they felt anxious.


What did Blascovich et al (2001) say about stereotype threats?

The effects of stereotype threat are partly caused by high blood pressure.


List some of the more 'measurable effects' that have been associated with stereotype threat.

- Trying too hard
- Withdrawing effort
- Dejection
- Straining working memory capacity (pressure due to distraction of thoughts of not conforming)
- Evaluation apprehension
- Diminished expectations for performance
- Self-doubt / negative thinking
- Self-handicapping (anticipate you will fail, so don't try, so can validate self afterwards)
- Domain dis-identification (e.g., dis-identify as a maths person)


Why is the physical and mental health of minorities often lower than advantaged groups?

- Unequal access to healthcare
- Chronic stressors associated with stigmatisation (e.g., poverty)
- Discrimination leads to higher levels of stress, anger, cortisol; hyper-vigilance can wear ppl out


List some of the health issues found in stigmatised minorities.

--- higher rates of psychiatric illness, fully mediated by discrimination
--- higher suicide risk, partly mediated by discrimination
--- mood disorders, substance abuse, psychiatric illness higher in states w/o SSM
- Black Americans:
--- discrimination linked to greater cardiovascular ill health, diabetes, depression, smoking and substance abuse


What do Crocker and Major (1989) say about why stigmatised groups do not have reduced self-esteem?

- They compare their outcomes with those in ingroup rather than advantage outgroup
- Devalue dimensions on which group does poorly and values those which they do well (family, community, etc)
- Attribute -ve feedback to prejudice against group (an easy out, psychologically)


Describe the study by Crocker et al (1991) about prejudice and women writing an essay.

- Ps told male assessor was either liberal or sexist
- Ps felt much worse about -ve feedback from a liberal assessor; -ve feedback from sexist assessor was explained away by his sexism


Describe the study by Crocker et al (1991) about seen / unseen +ve / -ve feedback.

- B and W Ps fill in form about selves; get +ve / -ve evaluation on personality from assessor, seen and unseen
- B Ps felt worse when W assessor gave +ve feedback as think they're giving it to not appear racist


What is the argument by Crocker et al about stigmatised groups and attributional ambiguity?

- Stigmatised groups can never be sure whether ppl are treating them in a certain way b/c of their race
- Good and bad consequences:
--- If you fail, you can protect self-esteem by attributing to racism
--- If you succeed, you might always wonder if preferential treatment is b/c of minority status (equal opportunity)


Outline the study by Schmitt et al (2003) where women received -ve feedback after job interview, in relation to attributions to prejudice.

- Ps told -ve feedback was due to non-sexist reasons, rare example of sexism or pervasive culture of sexism
- Ps then rated their +ve affect and self-esteem
- Ps felt worse about one-off instances of prejudice rather than endemic situations


Outline the rejection-identification model identified by Schmitt and colleagues.

- Discrimination does hurt self-esteem
- However, -ve consequences of discrimination are buffered by solidarity w/ other members of disadvantaged group
- Found among women, international students, body piercers


Discuss study of concealable v non-concealable stigma in relation to prejudice and self-esteem by Frable et al (1998).

- Concealable: gays, bulimic, poor
- Non-concealable: blacks, obese, stutterers
- Levels of self-esteem and confidence higher (depression lower) among ppl w/ non-concealable stigma; ingroup solidarity buffered -ve effects, ppl w/ non-concealable stigma better able to find and support each other


Outline Cohen's study into belonging and academic dis-identification.

- Cohen argued that school performance of ethnic minorities in maths-science subjects falls in middle school due to threat associated with minority status
- Intervention: students wrote essays on their values and core beliefs
- Racial achievement gap reduced by 40%
- Most effective essays had themes of belonging and connectedness; affirmations of self-integrity


Outline studies into "perpetual foreigners".

- Wu (2002): Although Asians may identify with the Western nations they were born / raised in, they are perpetually treated as foreign; e.g., where are you 'really' from?
- Cheryan and Monin (2005): questioned Ps American identity; Asian Americans reported greater engagement in US cultural practices, recalled more 1970s US TV shows
- Guendelman, Cheryan, Monin, (2011): Asian Americans in the identify denial condition 3x more likely to report American food as fave (burgers, etc), ordered and ate more fatty food
- Subtle identity denial experience caused Ps to behave differently


Outline studies that report that ppl are loath to attribute events to prejudice.

- Taylor et al. (1990): Indian and Haitian migrants to Canada about experiences of discrimination - more group discrimination than personal
- Ruggiero & Taylor (1995): women in test, told either 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, or 0% of the judges were sexist - only very strong proof that discrimination was real (100%) did they attribute failure to discrimination


Outline the study by Kaiser & Miller (2001) re -ve consequences of making attributions to discrimination.

- W Ps told B man had failed test assessing future career success, with 8 W judges who were either none, 4, or all prejudice
- Follow-up questionnaire: B man attributed fail to discrimination or poor performance
- Ps rated how liking B man: attributing failure to discrimination rated less likeable than attributing to poor performance … regardless of objective likelihood that failure was result of discrimination


Outline studies on women and reporting sexism.

- Stangor et al (2001): -tive consequences of claiming discrimination; women more likely to cry “discrimination” when on own or w/ other women than with men
- Swim & Hyers (1999): study A, asked what they would do in scenario of sexism from group member in a decision-making task; study B, diff women actually placed in scenario and directly experienced sexism:
--- A: 1% said ignore comment; 48% said respond
--- B: 55% ignored comment; 16% did respond
--- Women massively overestimated their willingness to confront the sexism head-on.


What are the 3 stages in responding to discrimination?

1. Ask: What was that? Was that discrimination?
2. Answer: Make a decision as to whether that was discrimination
3. Announce: Overt reporting and confronting
--- This process can take time.


How vital are social relationships to our mental and physical health and wellbeing?

- Social connectedness is more important than standard predictors of obesity, alcohol consumption and physical activity
- Experience less colds, heart attacks, strokes, cancer, depression and premature death of all sorts
- If you join a group you cut your risk of dying over the next year in half


Outline the biopsychological model of health (and malfunctioning).

- Biological: family history, genetic mutations, brain chemistry
- Individual differences: cognitive style, personality, life stressors
- Group processes: group memberships
- Sociocultural: nationality, age group, profession


Outline the benefits of social determinants over biomedical treatments of mental health.

- More cost-effective
- Less stigmatising
- Better access to treatment
- Enhance compliance and reduces relapse
- Based on increasing body of evidence


What is meant by the phrase 'social identity'?

- In society, we live, and have evolved to function, in social groups
- As a result, a substantial part of our self / identity drives from those group memberships


Outline the theory behind the social identity approach.

- Incorporates principles of social identity theory and self-categorisation theory
- Self is context-dependent: group membership, social identity, we / us; individuality, personal identity, me / I
- Qualitative difference b/t behaviour based on personal v social identity
- Group memberships: ingroup alliance


Outline how social identity plays a role in health and wellbeing.

- determinant of symptom appraisals and responses
- determinant of health-related norms and behaviour
- basis for social support
- coping resource
- determinant of clinical outcomes


Give an example of how social identity determines what a given symptom means and what a person will do about it.

- Levine & Reicher (1996): female PE students compared 2 different injuries - gender identity (female) more concerned by facial scar, while sports person identity (PE student) more concerned with knee injury


Outline the transactional model of stress.

- Suggests stress depends on appraisals of stressors
- Importance of perceptions and interpretation
- Primary appraisal: is this stressful for me? Depends on construal
- Secondary appraisal: can I cope? Depends on resources


Outline the social psychological theory of the transactional model of stress.

- Shared social identity impacts appraisals of stressors
- Primary appraisal: is this stressful for us? Implications for group
- Secondary appraisal: can we cope? Depends on resources and condition of group and its capacity to provide support


Describe experimental evidence of how self-categorisation affects appraisals of stressors.

- Students told math task is challenging or stressful from fellow student (ingroup) or stress sufferer (outgroup): appraisal and reaction shaped by info from ingroup; i.e., ingroup reported it was stressful, Ps found it stressful
- Bar workers and bomb disposal officers rated stress of each other's jobs, each reported other's jobs to be more stressful: appraisal and reaction shaped by own relationship / defined by sense of self


Describe age-related self-categorisation in relation to negative effects of social group membership on health.

- When old age is salient, memory performance on task decreases
- Effects of underperformance linger long after ppl leave
-vely stereotyped environment; underperformance can lead to misdiagnosis with significant -ve consequences


Describe experimental evidence of age-related self-categorisation in relation to negative effects of social group membership on health.

- Ps, 60-70yrs, assigned to young (60-90) or old (40-70) condition and beliefs about ageing (general or specific to memory)
- Dementia screening (ACE-R) and memory (WMS-III)
- Self-categorisation and identity content both mattered: older identifying Ps performed worse and 72% met criteria for dementia even though baseline measures for cognitive performance (MMSE) showed no differences


What can be concluded in relation to age-related self-categorisation?

- Cognitive performance is not fixed but highly variable
- Cognitive performance is contingent on group-related beliefs and expectations
- Significant practical implications (e.g., concerning the evaluation of performance such as in the case of diagnosis of dementia)