Final Exam Flashcards Preview

Equine Breeding > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (71):
1

when do we inseminate and why

24 hours after ovulation because she is in estrus

2

when do we know the mare is receptive to the stud

tease score of 4-5

3

what is the cervix

natural barrier and it protects from bacteria

4

how is her cervix when she is ready to breed

open

5

what is teasing

introducing mare and stud to see if she is receptive to him though the use of body language

6

what are the three changes you want to see on the ultrasound

1. wagon wheel shape
2 fluid changes and gets cloudy
3 the luteal ring forms

7

how big do you want the dominant follicle to be before breeding

40-50 mm at least

8

how many hours before the end of estrus does ovulation take place

24 hours

9

how many times do we inseminate in an ideal world

twice, once before and once after or 12 hours apart hoping to catch the window of ovulation

10

how do you increase the chance of having a colt vs a filly

the lighter sperm is male and you meed to breed as close to ovulation as possible because you want the egg at the highest point in the oviduct

11

why are male sperm lighter

males only have the X chromosome and females have XY therefore they're heavier

12

what are the 5 steps in a BSE

1. verify ID
2. know the history including repro
3. general physical eval
4. repro eval
5. ancillary tests

13

how do you verify the ID

check tattoos and markings ect.

14

what do you want to know about the repro history

if they have any deformities like princesses uterus

15

what do they check in the general exam

overall health of animal and if they have STD's

16

what is checked in the repro exam

whether they're fertile or if they have any cysts or unnatural edema

17

what does a ancillary test check in studs

penile fossa and urethral culture

18

what does a ancillary test check in mares

uterine biopsy and cultures

19

what is a satisfactory breeder

free of undesirable defects
no STD's
willing and able to breed
normal semen quality adn output
ejaculate 1 billion PMMN's

20

what is the other name for caslick

vulvoplasty

21

why do we do caslicks

if mare has poor perineal conformation

22

examples of poor perineal conformation

recessed rectum, tears in the vulva
open vulva

23

what does a recessed rectum lead to

manure contamination

24

what is bad about having an open vulva

air and bacteria get in and causes a breeding ground for bacteria

25

what can you do before a caslick to fix the poor conformation

fatten them up to increase the body score in hopes it fixes the solution

26

what is a risk factor of the caslick

endometritis

27

what suture pattern is used in a caslick and why

ford interlocking stitch so that it reduces pressure points

28

what does the stitch look like

L's

29

how long is normal equine gestation

340 days

30

when is a foal a preemie

320 days or less

31

how does the vulva change before foal

relaxes and opens, area between vulva and anus relaxes

32

how does the tail head change before foal

it relaxes and it is not covered in fat or muscle so it very prominant

33

how does the muscles and tendons change before foal

water bed butt they look angular

34

how does the abdominal shape change before foal

they drop they look slab sided and they look triangle shaped and ribby

35

what is the hormone produces by the fetus

relaxin

36

what is relaxin

polypeptide hormone produced by fetus

37

how do the mammary glands develop

they build a bag and it fills up with milk

38

what is the milk test score corrolated with a baby

200 ppm usually means 24-48 hours

39

what is waxing

when colostum builds up on the teats and hardens

40

what are some behavioral signs mare might foal

colic symptoms, discomfort, going off feed and isolation

41

who initiates partuition

fetus
baby decides day mom decides time

42

when does the foal decide when they want out

theres no room which increases fetal cortisol which sends signals to mom
also the diving position

43

what hormones affect partuition

progesterone- decreases no longer maintaining pregnancy
estrogen- increases to cause contractions
PGF2a- stops the progesterone
oxytocin- helps cause contractions
calciu- helps prevents muscle exhaustion

44

what does an increase in estrogen cause

contractions

45

what does PGF2a do

stops the progesterone that is maintaining the pregnancy

46

what hormone helps with contractions

oxytocin

47

what hormone helps prevent muscle exaustion

calcium

48

what are the three stages of partuition

pre labor
expulsion
cleaning/ delivery of placenta

49

when does stage 1 start and end

start: intital with uterine contractions
end: water breaking

50

when does stage 2 start and end

Start: Broken water
End: foal on ground

51

how long should expulsion take

10-30 mins with constant progress

52

what happens when the water breaks

its the rupture of the chorioallatonic membrane at the vertical star aka release of amniotic fluid

53

how long do you have to save a red bag foal

less than ten mins once they red bad they have no oxygen

54

what is the start adn end of stage 3

Start: foal on the ground
end: when all fetal membranes are expelled

55

what do you never do with the membranes

PULL

56

what is another work for delivering the placenta

Cleaning

57

how long should it take to clean/ deliver the placenta

no more than 3 hours if longer call vet

58

what happens if the placenta is retained

sepsis and death

59

what can you do to help deliver the placenta

give ocytocin for contraction and flush out mare

60

what is the 123 rule

stand by hour 1
nurse by hour 2
clean by hour 3

61

why is the 123 rule important

its a guideline to see if everything is running smoothly

62

when is colostrum needed

by hour 2

63

what does colostum do

gives IGG antibodies and it acts as a laxative to get meconium out

64

what is meconium

sticky black and tar like fisrt thing that foal will pass

65

what do you do if your foal does not pass meconium

fleet enema

66

what will happen if you foal doesnt pass meconium

colic and or death

67

what can happen if fetal membranes are retained

death and sepsis

68

how can you check if the whole placenta was delivered

fill it with water it shouldnt leak if it does youre missing a piece

69

what do you use to clean the chord stump

iodine or chlorhexadine

70

what are th negatives about iodine cleaning

its harsh on skin

71

what is the negative about chlorhexadine cleaning

will need to be dome more frequently