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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (78):
1

what is day 0

Ovulation

2

what is ovulation

release of an egg from an ovary

3

when does ovulation occur

24 hours before the end of estrus

4

what happens in days 3-5

the CH (Corpus Hemmoragicum) turns to a CL (Corpus Luteum)

5

what happens in day 14-16

diestrus occurs

6

what is diestrus

when the mare is not able to be impregnated aka the progesterone is high and estrogen is low

7

what are the 5 types of cells

1. primordial
2 primary
3 secondary
4 tertiary
5 dominant

8

what are the hormones

estrogen E2
progesterone P4
gonadotropin releasing hormone GNRH
leutenizing hormone LH
follical stimulatin hormone FSH
Prostoglandin F2a PGF2a

9

what is estrogen

it is produced by a dominant follical
its responsible for estrus

10

what does estrus do

it opens the cervix and makes the mare receptive to be bred

11

what are the three follicular changes was ovulation approches

the uterus changes shape
it develops a luteal ring
the follicular fluid gets cloudy

12

what is the purpose of the cervix

its the natural barrier that protects from bacteria

13

what does an inncrease in progesterone cause

diestrus - no breeding

14

how does the cervix change during the estrus cycle

when its open shes in estrus
when its closed shes in diestrus

15

what hormones cause the cervix to change

estrogen opens it
progesterone closes it

16

what do you use to examine the mare?

a speculum

17

signs to breed your mare

showing signs of estrus
has a large follicle on her ovary that is starting to show signs of ovulating
her cervix is open

18

pros of AI

genetic variation
controlled breeding date
its safer
the stud can cover more mares

19

cons of AI

expensive
labor intensive
reduced fertility

20

what is a breedable dose of semen?

1 billion sperm and 250-500 MILLION PROGRESSIVELY MOTILE SPERM

21

how do you calculate a breedable dose

PMMN's volume*Concentration * progressively motile * morphological normal

22

what is a mornal breeding dose

10-50 ml
1-1 extended fro on farm insemination
3-1 for cooled and shipped semen

23

what equipment is needed for AI

Sterile gloved
non spermacidal lube
pipette
semen
mare handler ect

24

what is differeent in AI and live cover

AI you go through the uterus to the cervix stud wont go in the uterus
live cover

25

what is progesterone

P4
Produced by the CL
no hormone diestrus and it maintains pregnancy

26

what is FSH

produced by pituitary gland
responsible for follicular growth and development

27

what do follicles do

grow and develop through the estrus cycle until ovulation

28

when does the luteal phase start

at ovulation and ends at PGF2a which leads to leutialisis

29

when is the follicular phase

before and after ovulation

30

what is leutialisis - luteal licing

the destruction of the CL which occurs at the end of the luteal ohase

31

what does the follicular phase consist of

the growth and development of follicles
there is an increase of estrogen

32

what does the luteal phase consist of

increase in progesterone from the CL

33

what is the lutenizing hormone

its produced by the anterior pituitary gland and it is responsible for ovulation

34

what is PGF2a

produced by the non pregnant uterus
responsible for lysis of the CL and the return for estrus

35

what is anestrus

complete abscence of estrus

36

what are mares

seasonally polyestrus

37

how long does the cycle last

21 days on average

38

what are the Gonadotropins

FSH LH

39

what is produced if pregnancy isn't detected by day 14 t

PGF2a to create the lycing of the CL
causes a contraction of smooth muscle

40

what are the options for breeding

pasture, hand and AI

41

who do you need for a stallion collection

handler for both horses washer bucket holder and an av tech and spotter

42

three most important characteristics for an av

temperature pressure and lube

43

diffrence between missouri and the colorado av

missouri is lighter and easy to manuver but it looses temp
colorady is heavy and bulky

44

semen evaluation

ejaculate volume
gel free volume
concentration
progressive motility

45

normal levels

ejaculate volume 70 ml
gel free vol 30-60 ml
sperm concentration 100-400 X 10 ^6ml
total sperm 7-10 billion
motility greater than 60%
Morphology greater than 60% normal

46

four major things about semen handling

1. avoid temp fluctuations
2 avoid
uv exposure
3 evaluate it quickly
4 extend it quickly

47

what is the gross appearance of semen

watery opaque and near white

48

what does the gel fraction do

acts as a block and will attempt to seal the cervix acts as a spermacide

49

why do we care about the gel volume

tells you how many breedable doses you can get from one collection

50

what is the normal sperm concentration

100-400 X 10^6 ml

51

what is the total sperm number

the determination of total sperm number (Semen volume * concentration )

52

what is gross motility

alive and moving but but not doing anything theyre usually circling

53

progressive motility

the sperm that get your horse pregnant they ones with a mission

54

head of sperm

contains nucleus and acromosone

55

acromosome

contains enzymes required for fertilization

56

nucleus

the dna

57

neck

connects head and tail

58

midpiece

produces tail movement

59

principal piece

moves for propulsion

60

abnormalities

if you have a sample under 70% don use it

61

PMMN's

Progressively motile,
Morphological Normal Sperm
VOLUME X CONCENTRATION X PROPORTION MOTILE X PROPORTION MORPHOLOGICAL NORMAL

62

what is teasing

exposing a mare to a stud to see if she is in estrus

63

teasing methods

stallion in a box
tease chute
pasture teasing
in pen teasing
stall side teasing

64

signs of estrus

standing heat
winking
squatting
vocalizing
interested in stud
showing the vulva lifting tail

65

signs of diestrus

pinned ears
clamped tail
refusal to approach stud
striking out

66

0 score

rejection of resense

67

1 score

not agressive but nit interested in stud

68

2 score

shows interest but its slow

69

3 score

more interest might show signs of estus winking and urination

70

4 score

intense interest standing heat continued winking and urination

71

dominant follicle

high estrogen low progesterone

72

What is the breedable on farm dose

500 million

73

What is the breedable shipping dose

1000 million or one billion they’re the same

74

How do you figure out how many mares you can breed from a single dose

Take your total PMS what is volume concentration and percentage multiplied together then you take that number and you divide it by the breedable dose

75

On farm breeding ratio

1:1

76

Off farm ratio

3:1

77

What is the minimum amount of semen and extender for on farm

10ml

78

What is the minimum shipping dosage

40ml