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Flashcards in First Test Deck (79):
1

What is Reproduction

the process of joining genetic material from the male and the female to create offspring

2

What is ovulation

the release of of an egg from the ovaries in response to hormones

3

fertilization

the joining of an egg and sperm to begin the formulation of offspring

4

What is spermatogenesis

sperm production

5

gestation

pregnancy

6

parturition

foaling

7

cryptorchid

male with only one descended teste

8

what does puberty mean for males and females

males: the production of sperm
females: beginning to cycle and the ability to maintain a pregnancy

9

when do horses typically reach puberty

12-18 months

10

what affects the time horses reach maturity

nutritional status, body weight and their sex fillies typically mature earlier

11

What seasonally polyestrous mean

means that the horses do not cycle year round but come into heat several times during the season

12

What are the four goals of the horse breeder

1. have outstanding athletes
2. remain healthy and sound
3. optimal conformation and temperament
4. eliminate the faults of the breed

13

what are somethings to consider when choosing a breed

-suitability for thr chosen activity
- market strength
-availability of breeding stock

14

what are the four general rules of breeding

1. avoid defects/ diseases
2, avoid conformation faults
3. use logic not emotion
4. evaluate the animals objectively

15

when visualizing perfection what do you consider

pedigree, conformation, temperament, athleticism

16

how to read a pedigree

sire on top mare on bottom

17

what is conformation

how the horse is put together

18

what does conformation affect

locomotion, athleticism soundness

19

how do we evaluate conformation

by seeing if it is pleasing to the eye

20

proportions of the hips

withers and hips level

21

feet:

well shaped and wide through the heels

22

pastern angle

50 degrees

23

proportions of front legs

straight when viewed from front

24

proportions of hind legs

straight from the back and from the side back of the hock are perpendicular to the ground

25

how do you evaluate conformation

by watching the horse move paying attention to their tracking and balance along with coordination

26

how does temperament affect the choice of breeding stock

nasty horses make nasty foals

27

how do you evaluate athleticism

their race earning throughout their lifetime

28

What is the sperm path

testes- epididymis- ductus deferens/ pelvic urethra - acessory sex gland secretions- penile urethra- ejaculation

29

why are the testes important

they are the factory for sperm production situated horizontally within the scrotum

30

testes

produce sperm and testosterone

31

Where is sperm located

located in the seminiferous tubules

32

Where is testosterone produced

produced in leydig cells

33

what influences sperm production numbers

age time of year testicular size and frequency of ejaculation

34

why do we care that sperm production takes 6 weeks

because if there is damage to them it can affect your breeding book

35

what is another name for sertoli cells

nurse cells

36

what are the five reasons nurse cells protect spermatogenesis

1 provide structural support
2 provide nutritional support
3 assist in the movement of sperm cells
4 clean up testicular parychema
5 create a blood testis barrier

37

what makes stallions scary

because of the leydig cells that produce testosterone

38

what are the functions of testosterone

- supports spermatogenesis
- secondary sex characteristic
- sex drive and libido

39

what are the main functions of the scrotum

- protect and support the testes as well as the associated ductworks

40

how does the scrotum achieve thermoregulation

- thin skin with multiple sweat glands
-tunica dartos muscles relax and contract
- pampiniforum plexus cools the blood going to the testes in the testicular artery

41

anatomy of the pampiniforum plexus

branches testicular vein wraps around the coiled testicular artery in the neck of the scrotum

42

function of the pampiniform plexus

cools the hot arterial blood with the cooler venous blood

43

seminiferous tubules

where the sperm are born

44

epididymis

where the sperm hangs out

45

what are the three parts of the epidiymis

the head
the tail
the body

46

the head

at the cranial pole

47

the body

dorsolateral surface

48

the tail

at the caudal pole

49

where are fertile sperm found

in the tail end of the epidiymis

50

what is the ductus deferens

is a tube connecting the tail of the epidiymis to the urethra for ejaculation

51

what are the six components of the spermatic chord

-testicular artery
-testicular veins
-testicular nerves
-lymphatic vessels
-one ductus deferens
-the cremaster muscle

52

the duct work where the accessory glands dump in

ductus deferens- pelvic urethra - accessory sex glands

53

semen is made up of what

sperm + acessory sex glands

54

accessory sex gland secretion is added to the semen to provide what

-a vehicle for sperm transportation
-nutritional support for sperm
-volume for dilution of sperm waste

55

what four types of accessory sex glands do stallions have

- 2 ampullae
- 2 vesticular glands
- 2 bulbourethra glands
-1 prostate gland

56

what kind of penis does a stallion have

musculocavernous meaning it fills with blood

57

what is husbandry

the application of scientific principals to agriculture specifically animal breeding

58

how are breeding stock horses different than regular horses

mares have higher nutritional requirements vaccination and deworming schedueles

59

basic nutrition

lots of fresh water and 1.5-2% body weight a day and 50% of diet is forage

60

BCS for stallion

5 is ideal for all

61

BCS fro broodmare

5 but keep in mind that she will drop weight while lactating

62

why is feeding a broodmare hard

their requirements increase 20-30% in the last 3 months of pregnancy

63

when does quality become much more important than quantity and why

8-11 months because they are finishing the greater parts of growing the fetus and it is taking on a more strenuous toll

64

when are feeding requirements for lactating mares increased

when they first start to produce it because she has to produce the milk and that takes a toll on her body

65

what are the basics for all horses

food shelter friends and food and safe fencing

66

stallion housing

it depends but keep separate from mares

67

broodmare housing

move her into foaling stall 1-2 weeks early
meet the basic needs
avoid mixing up established broodmare groups

68

foaling stall specifications

16 by 16 minimum 24 is preferred
straw bedding quiet and disinfected

69

what is the formula for BCS

temperament+ Nutrition + exercise

70

how long can you ride a pregnant broodmare

up to 7 months if she was in work before bred

71

benefits of exercise for pregnant mare

helps circulation and lymph flow
helps with BCS and can improve morale

72

four main vaccines aka core 4

EEE/WEE, Tetanus, west nile rabies

73

Risk Based vaccines

anthrax
Botualism
EHV
PHV
EVA
Influenza
Rotavirus
Strangles

74

suggested vaccines for studs

EEE/WEE west nile rabies tetanus EHV and Influenza

75

What is the EVA Vaccine

STD vaccine in studs

76

what is the EVA Specifications for studs

2 NEGATIVE EVA titers 3 weeks before vaccination

77

broodmare vaccinations

need the core 4 +/- botualism flu PHF and strangles

78

what dewormer are we cautious about using on broodmares

quest plus

79

what do we do to mom to protect the baby

vaccinate 4-6 weeks before foaling
deworm 4-6 weeks before foaling and move mom 2 weeks before