Flashcards in Final Exam "key" Deck (40)
What is the neurotransmitter that crosses the synaptic cleft?
What is a dendrite (action)?
propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron
What is the most likely fractured bone in the skull?
Zygomatic also seen frequently
What is the worst type of hematoma in the dural space? Why?
the epidural hematoma is the worst type because it is highly vascular and the bleed occurs rapidly. Therefore, the pressure increases significantly. It also is a closed vault, so there is no place for this pressure to go.
What is the most frequent hematoma seen in the dural space?
Where would a subarachnoid bleed go?
Into the brain itself
If an injury to Wernicke's area occurred, what would the pt. present as?
The person can speak and formulate sentences, but is unable to process what you say back to them.
If an injury to Broca's area occurred, what would the pt. present as?
The pt. will not be able to speak or formulate sentences. Speaks gibberish.
Prefrontal Cortex Controls What?
Personality, creativity, etc. less likely to be emotionally inhibited aka fearless. Can't reason danger
Where are Broca and Wernicke's area found?
Only found on the Dominant hand side of the brain. Therefore, if you are right handed, it would be located on the R side of your brain
At what level does the spinal cord end?
How many Spinal Nerves are there?
8 Cervical, 9 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Sacral
What is the purpose of the Myelin Sheath?
increase nerve conduction velocity
What is the worst Pupil reaction for an individual to have?
What is a Stroke (cerebrovascular accident)
caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain that may lead to reversible, or irreversible paralysis and neurological damage.
What are the main causes in the population we see?
drug abuse and cardiac embolism
What is Guillan-Barre Syndrome?
acute, diffuse demyelinating disorder that starts distally and moves proximal . progressive.
What are the four types of Headaches? Define them.
Vascular - caused by spasms of the surrounding vessels as a result of high blood pressure
Muscle Contraction - tension headache
Traction and Inflammation - result from other disorders
What is a Seizure
Abnormal discharges of electrical activity in the brain
Tonic-clonic muscle contractions, pre-ictal aura of smells or sounds, tongue biting,
Absence (Focal) Seizures
brief episode (3-10 seconds) loss of attention or awareness. No pre, or postical states
Treatment of Seizures
No one drug works the best, so there are a lot of them.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Neurodegenerative, lifelong chronic disease diagnosed primarily in young adults, characterized by the gradual accumulation of focal plaques of demyelination in the brain
What are the Four Forms of MS?
Relapsing-remitting, Primary-Progressive, Secondary-progressive, Progressive-relapsing
What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Lou Gehrig's Disease; neurological disease that is fatal, progressive, slowly attacks neurons responsible for voluntary muscle actions, there are no tx
Affects Facial Nerve, resulting in unilateral facial weakness or paralysis. Rapid onset that spontaneously resolves
Complex Region Pain Syndrome
OVER ACTIVITY of the sympathetic nervous system after a minor injury due to trauma of the nerve.
Type I CRPS
Follows injury to soft tissue or bone
Type II CRPS
Documented injury to a nerve.