FINAL EXAM- Periodicity Flashcards Preview

Chemistry 1 > FINAL EXAM- Periodicity > Flashcards

Flashcards in FINAL EXAM- Periodicity Deck (37):
1

Period

A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.

2

Series

a set of elements with common properties or of compounds related in composition or structure. SAME AS PERIOD- horizontal row of elements on the periodic table

3

Isoelectronic

having the same numbers of electrons or the same electronic structure. Ex. F and O-1

4

Periodicity

the quality or character of being periodic; the tendency to recur at intervals. The periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements recur in a systematic and predictable way when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.

5

Ionization energy

The energy required to remove AN electron from a neutral atom (not ion) of an element in the gaseous state

6

Electron affinity

The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom (most atoms release energy when they acquire electrons).

7

Electronegativity

measure of the ability of an atom in a compound to attract electrons from another atom in a compound.

8

Atomic radius

One half of the distance between the center of identical atoms that are not bonded together.

9

Alkali metals

- Column 1 or 1A (except H)
- Shiny, soft, low density, never found in elemental state in nature, one valence electron
- Loses one VE to form an ion with a +1 charge
- Reacts easily with oxygen
- Produces hydrogen and a solution in exothermic reaction with water (produces heat, basic substance left behind- bases can be just as harful as acids)
- Will float (low density)
- Need the ion in your diet

10

Alkaline earth metals

- Column 2 or 2A
- Similar to alkali metals- just not as
- 2 valence electrons, loses these two valence electrons to form an ion with a +2 charge
- Not as vigorously react
- Not as shiny, soft, etc
- A little harder, more dense, etc

11

Halogens

- Column 7 or 17
- All nonmetals
- 7 Valence electrons
- Gains one electron to form ions with a -1 charge
- Diatomic

12

Nobel or Inert gases

- Column 8 or 18
- Chemically inactive, rarely form compounds
- Has 8 Valence electrons (except He which has only 2 electrons total)
- Stable

13

Transitional metals

- Starting in column 3 and all the way over- everything beneath the staircase excluding La, Ac, and Al
- Form ions with varying charges
- Good conductors of electricity
- Have a high luster
- Less reactive than alkali and alkaline-earth metals- some so unreactive that they exist in in nature as free, single elements.
- D-block element s

14

Inner transitional (rare earth) metals

- The two rows of elements at the bottom + La and Ac
- F block
- Same as transitional with varying charges
- Lanthanides and Actinides

15

Metalloids

- Elements that border above the periodic table plus Ge and Sb (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, and At)
- Has some characterists of metals
- Some characteristics of nonmetals
- Solids at room temperature
- Less malleable than metals
- Not as brittle as nonmetsl
- Semiconductors of electricity

16

Representative metals

- First two columns, minus H, plus Al
- Always loses the same amount of electrons when they lose ions
- Form ions that always have the same charge

17

Nonmetals

- Elements to the right of metalloids, plus H
- Opposite of metals
- Not malleable
- Not ductile
- Doesn’t conduct hear and electricity
- Many valence electrons

18

Lanthanide and Actinide series

- 2 different series*
- Make up the inner-transitional metals*
- Two rows of elements at the bottom
- Lanthanides is the top one
- Actinides is the bottom one
- F block elements
- Actually wedged between groups 3 and 4
- Shiny metals
- Similar in reactivity to Group 2 alkaline-earth metals

19

To determine sublevels (generally):

- S includes the alkali and alkaline earth metals
- P includes the nonmetals
- D includes the transition metals
- F includes the inner transition or rare earth metals

20

To determine charge of the common ions

- Corresponds to the column number
- Only works for columns 1, 2, and 13-18 but we still refer to 13-18 3-8
- + column number for 1-3
- - for number of columns away from the nobel gases for 5-7
- column 4 can be + or –
- column 8 has no charge
- Ex. Be is +2, N is -3, and Si is + or – 4

21

To determine number of energy levels

- Number of valence electrons=family/group/column
- Row number (horizontal)= number of energy levels
- Only works for S and P block
- D block- number of energy levels= row #(n)-1
- F block- number of energy levels= row #(n)-2
- Ex. H has one, Al has 3, Hg has 5, and Th has 5

22

Basically everything has to do with

columbic attraction (attraction of negatively charged electrons to the positively charged nucleus) and the size of the radius. Smaller radius= larger columbic attraction since there is a smaller distance between the nucleus and electrons (think of magnets)=easier to gain electrons. Larger radius=lower columbic attraction since there is a bigger distance between nucleus and electrons.

23

Ionization energy

- The energy required to remove AN electron from a neutral atom of an element in a gaseous state.
- Ionization energy increases as the atomic radius decreases (Larger radius=easier to remove electrons)
- Increases from left to right on the periodic table

24

Electron affinity

- The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom.
- The more nonmetallic, the higher the electron affinity
- Increases right and up on the periodic table

25

Atomic radius

- Half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together.
- Radius increases down a group because of increasing energy levels
- Radius decreases across a period due to the increasing positive charge of the radius
- Increases down and left on periodic table

26

Ionic radius

- The distance away from the central atom.
- Ionic radius decrease from left to right as nuclear charge increases on cations until anions are reached and then the radius sharply increases due to the additional energy levels with anion formation.
- Ionic radius increases down a groups as the number of energy levels increase

27

Metallic characteristics

- Characteristics of metals.
- The easier an element loses electrons, the more metallic it is considered
- More metallic down a group because of increasing number of energy levels
- Increases right to left because of decreased ionization energy
- The further left and down on the periodic table, the more metallic in character.

28

Electronegativity

- Measure of the ability of an atom in a compound to attract electrons from another atom in a compound.
- More nonmetallic, the electronegativity increases
- Increases right and up on periodic table since the radius is smaller and there is more of an attraction to the nucleus (columbic attraction), making it easier for it to gains electrons.

29

Periodic law

The periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements recur in a systematic and predictable way when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.

30

Mendeleev

- Came to him in a dream
- Russian chemist proposed an organization scheme of all the know elements based on valence electrons and atomic weight
- Predicted the existence of 8 new elements and their masses

31

Doberiener

- German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic for the chemical element
- Discovered trends in certain properties of select groups of elements
- Proposed the Law of Triads

32

Meyer

- German scientist best known for his part in the periodic classification of the elements
- Organized 28 elements by atomic weight and valence electrons
- Came before Mendeleev- possibly sent to him

33

Mendeleev

- Came to him in a dream
- Russian chemist proposed an organization scheme of all the know elements based on valence electrons and atomic weight
- Predicted the existence of 8 new elements and their masses

34

Series/period

A horizontal row of elements on the periodic table

35

Families

A group of elements with similar chemical properties. Chemical families tend to be associated with the vertical columns on the periodic table (ex. Alkali, Alkaline earth metals, halogens, and Noble gasses)

36

Group

A column of elements on the periodic table.

37

Calculate number of Protons, neutrons, and electrons

- Protons=atomic number ALWAYS- protons do not change because they define the element
- Electrons=Atomic number unless ion says otherwise
- Neutrons= Atomic mass-atomic number