Flashcards in FINAL EXAM- Quantum mechanics Deck (32):
a spectrum consisting of discrete frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
continuous range of frequencies/wavelengths/energies of electromagnetic radiation
(dark line spectra)- results when electrons absorb energy to move from ground to excited state
(bright line spectra)- results from electrons losing energy when they move from an excited state to the ground state
the radiation associated with an electric and magnetic field; it varies periodically and travels at the speed of light (textbook). Form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space, visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and visible light it a type of electromagnetic radiation (notes).
Principal energy level
The energy level denoted by principal quantum number n. The first element in a period of the periodic table introduces a new principal energy level. Represented by 1-7. Size of the area where electron is found. Same as Principal quantum number- the quantum number that indicates the energy and orbital of an electron in an atom.
A sublevel is an electron orbital. Sublevels are designated s, p, d or f. These sublevels or orbitals have characteristic shapes, which can be used to explain and predict the chemical bonds that atoms can form. Shape of the area where the electron is found.
A region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons. A three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron (the weird shapes). Orientation in space of the area the electron is found.
an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass). Ex. C-12
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
Describe the four levels of the quantum mechanics model
1st energy level
- Can hold up to 2 electrons
- Has 1 sublevel and it is Spherical (S) in shape
2nd energy level
- Can hold up to 8 electrons
- Has 2 sublevels- S & P
3rd energy level
- Can hold up to 18 electrons
- Has 3 sublevels- S, P, & D
4th-7th energy levels
- Can hold up to 32 electrons
- Has 4 sublevels- S, P, D, & F
can hold 2 electrons and has 1 orientation
can hold 6 electrons and has 3 orientations
can hold 10 electrons and has 5 orientations
can hold 14 electrons and has 7 orientations
Energy level, Sublevel, Orbital, and Spin are all
- an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it.
- Diagonal arrows
Pauli Exclusion principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers. In the orbital diagram, 2 electrons within the same orbital have to have opposite spins.
- opposite spin arrows
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron and all singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin. Electrons don’t want to be with each other/double/pair up because they have opposite spins.
- single arrow
Electron configuration, energy level represented by
Electron configuration, sublevel represented by
Electron configuration, orbital represented by
box (number number of orientations)
Electron configuration, spin represented
Novel has electron configuration
- Find element on periodic table
- Find the noble gas that has the closest atomic number but who’s atomic number is still less than the element you found. In this case, Rb’s atomic number is 37 and Kr’s is 36.
- You can replace the full electron configuration up to 36 electrons with Kr and then write the remaining
- You can only do this with noble gases
How to find last placement of of element on periodic table
- Energy level= how many spaces down column
- Sublevel= section its in
- Electrons= number of spaces over in a row
the radiation associated with an electric and magnetic field; it varies periodically and travels at the speed of light.
When electrons are emitter from a metal when light shines on the metal.
The branch of science concerned with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced when matter interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation.
red to violet energy
least to most