FINAL EXAM- Quantum mechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM- Quantum mechanics Deck (32):
1

Line spectra

a spectrum consisting of discrete frequencies of electromagnetic radiation

2

Continuous spectra

continuous range of frequencies/wavelengths/energies of electromagnetic radiation

3

Absorption spectra

(dark line spectra)- results when electrons absorb energy to move from ground to excited state

4

Emission spectra

(bright line spectra)- results from electrons losing energy when they move from an excited state to the ground state

5

Electromagnetic radiation

the radiation associated with an electric and magnetic field; it varies periodically and travels at the speed of light (textbook). Form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space, visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and visible light it a type of electromagnetic radiation (notes).

6

Principal energy level

The energy level denoted by principal quantum number n. The first element in a period of the periodic table introduces a new principal energy level. Represented by 1-7. Size of the area where electron is found. Same as Principal quantum number- the quantum number that indicates the energy and orbital of an electron in an atom.

7

Sublevel

A sublevel is an electron orbital. Sublevels are designated s, p, d or f. These sublevels or orbitals have characteristic shapes, which can be used to explain and predict the chemical bonds that atoms can form. Shape of the area where the electron is found.

8

Orbital

A region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons. A three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron (the weird shapes). Orientation in space of the area the electron is found.

9

Isotope

an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass). Ex. C-12

10

Electron configuration

The arrangement of electrons in an atom

11

Describe the four levels of the quantum mechanics model

1st energy level
- Can hold up to 2 electrons
- Has 1 sublevel and it is Spherical (S) in shape

2nd energy level
- Can hold up to 8 electrons
- Has 2 sublevels- S & P

3rd energy level
- Can hold up to 18 electrons
- Has 3 sublevels- S, P, & D

4th-7th energy levels
- Can hold up to 32 electrons
- Has 4 sublevels- S, P, D, & F

12

S

can hold 2 electrons and has 1 orientation

13

P

can hold 6 electrons and has 3 orientations

14

D

can hold 10 electrons and has 5 orientations

15

F

can hold 14 electrons and has 7 orientations

16

Energy level, Sublevel, Orbital, and Spin are all

Quantum numbers

17

Aufau principal

- an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it.

- Diagonal arrows

18

Pauli Exclusion principle

no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers. In the orbital diagram, 2 electrons within the same orbital have to have opposite spins.
- opposite spin arrows

19

Hund’s rule

orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron and all singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin. Electrons don’t want to be with each other/double/pair up because they have opposite spins.
- single arrow

20

Electron configuration, energy level represented by

1-7

21

Electron configuration, sublevel represented by

spdf

22

Electron configuration, orbital represented by

box (number number of orientations)

23

Electron configuration, spin represented

arrows

24

Novel has electron configuration

- Find element on periodic table
- Find the noble gas that has the closest atomic number but who’s atomic number is still less than the element you found. In this case, Rb’s atomic number is 37 and Kr’s is 36.
- You can replace the full electron configuration up to 36 electrons with Kr and then write the remaining
- You can only do this with noble gases

25

How to find last placement of of element on periodic table

- Energy level= how many spaces down column
- Sublevel= section its in
- Electrons= number of spaces over in a row

26

Electromagnetic radiation

the radiation associated with an electric and magnetic field; it varies periodically and travels at the speed of light.

27

Photoelectric effect

When electrons are emitter from a metal when light shines on the metal.

28

Spectroscopy

The branch of science concerned with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced when matter interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation.

29

Shorter wavelength

higher frequency

30

longer wavelength

lower frequency

31

red to violet energy

least to most

32

Photoelectric effect happens when

the electron picks up light (higher energy light=moves farther) and that light is no longer there, then it jumps back to the ground state and emits the light it took.