Test 1- Measurements and Metric Flashcards Preview

Chemistry 1 > Test 1- Measurements and Metric > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1- Measurements and Metric Deck (56):
1

Lab Safety

- If you or your partner is hurt, immediately yell out "Code one. Code one" to get the instructor's attention
- Common sense. Don't be stupid

2

PH scale

- PH=Power H+
- Acids- less than 7
- Bases- greater than 7

3

Caustic & Volatile

- Caustic- acid- burns flesh
- Volatile- harmful/dangerous

4

Observation vs. Inferences

- Observation- uses your senses
- Inference- Based upon previous knowledge

5

7 dynamic elements

Br, I, N, CI, H, O, F
- Really reactive
- Hook up with each other or other other atoms

6

Density formula

Density= Mass/Volume

7

Use of measuring instruments

- Set balance to zero
- Always guess one more digit than the device goes

8

Fundamental quantity

unchanging in nature

9

7 fundamental quantities

- Luminous intensity, Temperatire, Mass, Amount of substance, Electric current, Time, Distance/Length
- Little Timmy May Always Eat Ten Doughnuts

10

Luminous intensity is measured in

Candelas

11

Temperature is measured in

Kelvin

12

Mass is measured in

Kilograms

13

Amount of substance is measured in

Moles

14

Electric current is measured in

Ampere

15

Time is measured in

Seconds

16

Distance/Length is measured in

Meters

17

Derived quantities

Based on fundamental ones and have formulas

18

Water freezes/boils

- Celsius- 0/100
- Fahrenheit- 32/212
- Kelvin- 273/373

19

Absolute zero

-273c

20

Formula for Kelvin

273+C=K

21

Extrapolated

Extended trend beyond data

22

Catalyst

Speeds up chemical reaction without being changed

23

Staircase

Kilo (k)
Hecto (h)
Deka (da)
BASE (m,l,g)
Deci (d)
Centi (c)
Mili (m)
SKIP
SKIP
Micro (u w/ tail)
SKIP
SKIP
Nano (n)
SKIP
SKIP
Pico (p)

24

Staircase down

Multiply by 10; move decimal to the right

25

Staircase up

Divide by 10; move decimal to the left

26

Staircase acronym

King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk SKIP SKIP Micro SKIP SKIP Nano SKIP SKIP Pico

27

Scientific Notation

- Used to write really big/small numbers in a simple way
- Move the decimal over until the number is greater than or equal to 1, but less than 10
- Count how many places you moved the decimal. However many it is, is the number you put as the exponent
- If you moved the decimal to the right, the exponent is negative because the original number is smaller than the number now in scientific notation
- If you moved the decimal to the left, the exponent is positive because the original number is bigger than the number now in scientific notation

28

Significant digits- Atlantic/Pacific rule

- If there is a decimal present, start counting from the left starting with the first non zero digit
- If there is not a decimal present, start counting from the right, starting with the first non zero digit.

29

Significant digits- adding/subtracting

- First identify the guessed digit in each number (the last digit of the last number of each number in the problem)
- After adding/subtracting, the guessed digit with the highest place value will be used in the answer

30

Significant digits- Multiplying/dividing

- Count the number of digits in each number and the lowest number is the number you will round your final answer to
- Your answer needs to have that many significant digits

31

Accuracy vs. Precision

- Accuracy- The closeness of measurements to the correct or acceptable value of the quantity measured
- Precision- The closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way

32

Percent error

- Used to calculate how close the the correct answer you were
- Equation- Experimental value (what you got) - accepted value (correct answer) divided by accepted value (correct answer), times 100

33

Dimensional analysis

- aka factor label
- Use staircase method to figure out base-prefix ratio
- Start with given value on top and multiply until you end with the desired value on top, making sure units cancel as you go

34

Conversion factors

1m/100cm & 100cm/1m

35

quarts to gallons

4 quarts=1 gallon

36

Pints to quarts

2 pints=1 quart

37

cups to pints

2 cups= 1 pint

38

inches to feel

12 inches=1 foot

39

inches to yards

36 inches=1 yard

40

feet to yards

3 feet=1 yard

41

fl oz to cups

8 fl oz=1 cup

42

oz to pounds

16 oz=1 pound

43

Answer in dimensional analysis

- These unit equalities are infinitely significant
- The answer in dimensional analysis has the snake number of significant digits as the given value

44

Qualitative

Data based on information that’s not number but descriptive

45

Quantitative

Data based on numbers

46

Mole

the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

47

Density

- the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance; commonly expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per liter for gases.
- D=m/v

48

Volume

- a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space.
- LxWxH

49

Area

L X W

50

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

51

Parts of a formal lab report-

1. Title:
2. Purpose: background info, why were doing it
3. Materials: amounts, chemicals, glassware, equipment
4. Procedure: step by step, detailed, include diagrams when needed
5. Data: Only what you see, small, hear, etc. Qualitative and Quantitative (numbers and observations), no calculated values
6. Data analysis: Answer post-lab questions, do all calculations, and include all labels, graphs, analysis of graphs
7. Conclusion: Give examples from lab of how you addressed the purpose, discuss all sources or error in procedure, percent error

52

Lab safety

Lab safety ensures your safety while doing labs and makes sure you are doing them correctly both to get accurate data and be safe while doing it. No beverages/food, read directions and follow, keep isles clear, always stand, wear proper equipment, keep sharp tips away, no contact lenses, tie hair back, Use tongs and gloves with hot stuff, don’t leave burner unattended, point open end of burning tube away, study the handout

53

Balance

measures mass in grams

54

Thermometer

Measured temperature in celcius

55

Ruler

Measures length in centimeters and inches

56

Graduated cylinder

Measured volume in mL