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Flashcards in Final Exam Review Deck (54)
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1

What are some examples of communication barriers?

Ten trap questions

list 10 traps for interviewing?
1) providing false assurance or reassurance

2) Giving unwanted advice

3) Using authority

4) Using avoidance

5) Engaging in distancing

6) Using professional jargon

7) using leading or biased questions

8) Talking too much

9) Interupting

10) Using "why" questions.

2

Components of health hx?

Family health hx ?

Specific to patient: Past health such as vaccines, diseases, injuries, hospitalizations, medical hx ,surgeries, illness

Health info on close relatives

3

Subjective vs objective data

Subjective is what the patient tells you

Objective is data observed and what you see

4

Open ended vs close ended ?
Which would give the most info?

Closed - yes or no answers

Open- detailed answers - most info

5

What order would you conduct assessment of the abdomen

Inspect
Auscultate
Palpate
Percussion

6

Normal lung sounds ?

Bronchial ?

Bronchovestibular?

Vestibular ?


Where would you hear each on anterior and posterior ?

Bronchial- pitch is high, ampliflitude is loud - trachea and larynx

Bronchovestibular- pitch is moderate and amplitude is moderate - major bronchi and right scapula and upper sternum

Vestibular- pitch is low and amplitude is soft. Like wind in trees, over peripheral lung fields

Found by the sternum

7

Mole/lesion assessment:

How to assess ?

What might cancer look like?

ABCDE

Asymmetry- both side look the same?

Border irregularities

Color variations

Diameter greater than 6mm

Elevation or evolution

8

Inspection findings r/t

Scoliosis

Lordosis

Kyphosis

Scoliosis- shoulders are uneven, spine is uneven when bending over -curve is greater than 10 degrees

Lordosis- arched lower back (lumbar/cervical region)

Kyphosis- arches upper back -(thoracic region)

9

Define functional ability

Ones ability to perform activities necessary to live in modern society and include driving, using the phone, or performing personal tasks such as bathing and toileting

10

Define instrumental ADLs

Tasks such as shopping , meal
Preparation, house keeping, laundry, managing finances , taking meds , transportation.

Yard work, home maintenance, cooking

11

Importance of cuff size when taking bp?

If too big - false low

If too small- false high

?? How big to be

12

What does clubbing look like? Causes??

Protruding nails (bulbous)


Low oxygen in blood can cause (hypoxia)

13

Heart auscultation areas?

Aorta- 2nd Rt intercostal

Pulmonary- 2nd Lt

Erbs-3rd

Tricuspid 4th

Mitral/apical-5th

14

APEToman

Location of apical pulse

Mitral 5th- loudest at S1 here

Abnormality would be stenosis or regurgitation

15

Location of pulses ?

Radial wrist

Brachial - other side of elbow

Dorsal pedis - between big toe and second

Posterior tibial - back ankle

Popilital - behind knee

Apical- Lower left

Carotid - neck

Femoral - crotch

Temporal- behind eye on head

16

Glasgow coma scale?

What are the components?

Based on eye opening response, verbal response, and motor responses

13-15 points=minor brain injury

9-12 points=moderate brain injury

3-8 points =severe brain injury

17

Jendrassik maneuver

Have patient hook fingers together and clench their teeth to allow them to relax enough to elicit a patellar reflex

18

Cerebellum function tests

Rapid alternating movements - palm and back of hand knee pats

Finger to finger

Finger to nose **

Heel to shin - rub opposite heel along shin bone

Romberg test- standing with eyes closed and arms out holding the position

19

Test for each cranial nerves?

1-smell , plug one nostril

2-test visual acuity

3,4,6-tracking the finger and ocular movements

5- test clenching of teeth , push down on chin

7- smile, frown, lift eyebrows, show teeth, facial symmetry

8 hearing whispered voice test

9 and 10 depress tounge with blade and say ah , see uvula and tounge at midline

11-shrugging shoulders

12- to tremors, no protruding tounge , Normal clear speech

20

Deep tendon reflexes?

5 components :

An intact sensory nerve (afferent)
A functional synapse in the cord
An intact motor nerve fiber (efferent)
The neuromuscular junction
A competent muscle

21

Location of organs by quadrant

RUQ

RLQ

LLQ

LUQ

Midline

RUQ- liver, right kidney, gallbladder, colon, pancreas

LUQ- stomach left kidney, spleen, colon, pancreas

RLQ- appendix, colon, small intestine, ureter,major vein and artery to right leg

LLQ- colon, small intestine, ureter , major vein and artery to left leg

Midline- aorta, pancreas, small intestine, bladder, spine

22

Signs of arterial/venous insufficiency in extremities ?

Arterial- arteriosclerosis is stiffening or hardening of artery walls,
Atherosclerosis is narrowing of the artery because of plaque build up.

Symptoms -pain-worse with activity
Intermittent claudication
Rest pain- increased occlusion
Worse with legs in elevated position
Varcrose vein- worse in dependent position

Signs- coldness
Pallor (pale)
Hair loss
Skin tight, shiny , hard
Decreased/absent pedal pulse
Sores-round, minimal drainage , no odor

23

Bowel sounds?

?? What do normal sound like??

Assess LRQ first, click wise

4 quadrants for 5 min each

24

What does PERRLA stand for?

What does accommodation mean?

Pupils, equal, round, reactive to light, accommodation

Accommodation means pupils get bigger with distance and constrict when close up

25

Staging of pressure ulcers ?

Stage 1- red but unbroken

Stage 2- partial thickness skin erosion with loss of epidermis or dermis. Superficial

Stage 3-full thickness into the subcutaneous tissue. May see fat but no bone or tendon

Stage 4- full thickness and involves all skin layers including bone muscle and tendon. Maybe have eschar and slough

Unstageable- Black Eschar

26

Pectus escavatum vs Pectus carinatum

Pectus escavatum-sunken in

Pectus carnatum- protruding

27

Concentrated observation of the client

Inspection

28

Purposeful touch on the client

Percussion

29

Tapping with short, sharp strokes to assess underlying structures

Percussion

30

Listening

Auscultation

31

Purposeful touch on the client

Palpation

32

Edema scale

1-4 +

How long each resolve ?


0 + none
1+mild pitting 2mm and disappears rapidly
2+ moderate 4mm, 10-15 second pitting
3+ moderately severe, 6mm and lasts more than 1 min
4+ severe pitting edema, 8mm and lasts more than 2 minutes

33

Headache table page 271

?
Exacerbated by alcohol, stress, Day time napping , wind, heat.

Ipsilateral autonomic signs: Nasal congestion or runny nose , watery or reddened eye, eyelid, drooping, miosis

Feelings of agitation

34

Infant reflexes

Babinski

Moro

Grasp

Tonic neck

Root

Step

Suck

35

Neurological recheck exam?

Pupil response - size 2-6mm

Level of consciousness

Motor function

Vital signs

36

Lymph nodes names?

What’s normal?

What’s abnormal?

Submental -below jaw

Submandibular

Tonsillar

Preauricular

Postauricular

Anterior cervical

Posterior cervical

Occipital

Supraclavicular

Normal is non tender and non palpable

37

Components of general survey?

A study of the whole person, covering the general health state and any obvious physical characteristics.

Into to physical exam

Whole person not just one body system

38

What does the finger to nose test evaluate

Coordination

39

Touch toes - what does this evaluate

Scoliosis

ROM

40

Jaundice in a dark skin- where to assess

Palms

Scleras

41

Characteristics of psoriasis

Scaly , erthyematous patch with silvery scales on top

Usually on elbows, knees , low back, genital area

42

Doris flexion

Drawing the foot up

43

Active vrs passive ROM

Active is when patient can do it their self

Passive - staff helps

44

The ability to perceive and recognize the form of an object when unable to see or hear info about it by using texture, size , temp, etc

Stereognosis

45

The ability to recognize writing on the skin purely by the sense of touch

Graphesthesia

46

Increased loudness of whispering noted during auscultation with stethoscope on a patients torso

Whispered pectoriloguy

47

Increased voice sounds heard when listening to lungs , open caused by lung consolidation and fibrosis

Egophony

48

Abnormal transition of sounds from the lungs or bronchi

Bronchoscopy

49

Bababinski reflex , when does it disappear?

Stoke finger at bottom of foot , birth- 24 months

50

Good , normal , unlabored breathing

12-20

Eupneic

51

Slow breathing

Fast

Bradypneic

Less than 10 /min

Tachypneic greater than 24

52

SOB / dyspnea when lying flat

Prop up HOB

Orthopnea

53

Linear arrangement along with unilateral nerve route (one side of body)

Zosteriform

54

Blowing / swooshing sound heard through bell side of stethoscope when arerty is partially occluded

Bruit