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Flashcards in Study Guides Test2 Deck (171)
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1

Describe the appearance of Pallor

Light pale skin

2

Erythema in light and dark skin

Light skinned: red or pink

Dark skin: purple tinge

3

Cyanosis

Light skin- blue dusky

Dark skin- dark but dull

4

Jaundice

Yellowing of skin, palms , eyes

5

One color, flat such as freckle

Macule

6

Something you can feel that is solid and elevated such as:

Mole




Papule

7

Plateau like such as Psoriasis

Plaque

8

Nodule:

Solid, elevated such as fibroma

9

Mass in deeper dermis such as lipoma

Tumor

10

Superficial, raised, transient such as mosquito bite

Wheal

11

Elevated cavity with free fluid

Such as a blister

Vesicle

12

Turbid(cloudy) fluid and cavity

Such as acne or impetigo

Pustule

13

Primary skin lesions include?

Macule, Papule, plaque, nodule, tumor, wheel, vesicle, pustule

14

Secondary skin lesions include?

Crust, scale, vision, erosion, ulcer

15

Thick dried out exudate left when vesicles burst or dry up such as impetigo or weeping

Crust

16

Compact desiccated flakes of skin dry or greasy from Shedding of dead excess keratin cells such as eczema

Scale

17

Linear cracks with abrupt edges extend into dermis such as athletes foot

Fissure

18

Scraped out but shallow depression with no scar

Erosion

19

Deep depression into dermis such as pressure sore on body

Ulcer

20

Where to assess for jaundice ?

Sclera of eyes and hard palate

21

Why do we assess skin turgor?

To assess for dehydration

22

How to assess a lesion on a skin assessment?

Color, size, location, depth, drainage?

23

What capillary refill is considered normal?

Less than 1 second

24

What does ABCDE stand for when assessing skin

Asymmetry
(Half of mole doesn’t match the other)

Border

Color

Diameter
(Bigger than 6mm)

Evolving
(Changing in shape,color, size)

25

Characteristics of herpes zoster infection/shingles

Lesion on one side of body that does not cross the midline

26

How are lesions of ringworm described?

Annular lesion

(Meaning shape of ring)

27

Intense redness of the skin due to excess blood in dilated superficial capillaries

Erythema

28

Blue mottled color

Cyanosis

29

Absence of red pink tones from the oxygenated hemoglobin in blood

Pallor

30

Increase and Bilirubin in the blood causing a yellow color in the skin

Jaundice

31

Name borders of two regions in the neck :

Stemomastoid muscle and midline of body

Behind sternomastoid and trapezius muscles and clavicle

Anterior triangle

Posterior triangle

32

List facial structures that should appear symmetric when inspecting the head

Eyebrows , nasofolds, sides of mouth, ears , nose, eyes, palpebral fissures

33

Describe the characteristics of lymph nodes with associated with acute infection

Acute onset and less than 14 days of duration

34

Characteristics of lymph nodes were associated with chronic inflammation?

Nodes are tender and firm, warm, and large

35

Characteristics of lymph nodes when associated with cancer

Hard, Bigger than 3 mm, unilateral , non-tender

36

Identify the blood vessel that runs diagonally across the sternomastoid muscle

External jugular vein

37

Characteristics of lymph nodes in neck of healthy people

Mobile, soft, non tender

38

What are the characteristics of Bell’s palsy

Unilateral paralysis of half of the face

39

Cranial nerves

Oculomotor
Abduces
Trochlear

40

What does 20/40 vision mean?

Number on top is number of feet away from chart

Bottom number is the distance (40ft) that one can see normally where a normal person could see normally at 20 ft

41

Common age related changes in the eye

Loss of skin elasticity which causes wrinkles and drooping

Fat tissues and muscle atrophy

Decrease in acuity, tears, yellow nodules, cloudy cornea

42

What does it indicate when the examiner records positive consensual light reflex??

Construction of other pupil when one eye is exposed to bright light

43

How is visual acuity assessed

Snellen eye chart

44

What is conjunctivitis associated with?

Reddened conjunctiva / pink eye

45

Cause of red reflex?

Light reflecting from retina

46

Successful PERRLA exam?

Pupils are able to follow moving object close up and far away

They respond well to light, equal in size, round, and react to light

47

One cause of visual impairment?

Glaucoma

48

Whispered voice test of hearing acuity?

Test one ear at a time

Stand 2 ft behind

Mask hearing in other ear

Cover lips

Whisper 3 random letters and numbers

Have them repeat it

Passing is 3/6

49

Tympanic membrane in the ear is what color?

Pearly gray

50

What might the sensation of vertigo mean?

Pathology in the semicircular canals

51

Common cause of conductive hearing loss

Impacted cerumen

52

Functions of nose

Smell, respiration, filtration of air, warms and moistens air , sneezing out unwanted particles

53

Appearance of deviated nasal septum ?

Perforated septum?

Deviated? hump
Or shelf in one nasal cavity

Perforated: spot or light from a penlight that is shinning in the other nails

54

4 point grading scale for the size of tonsils ?

1+
2+
3+
4+

1-visible
2-halfway between tonsillar pillars and uvula
3-touching the uvula
4- touching one another

55

What is the most common reason for dry mouth in the elderly?

Medications

56

What to do if You notice a coin have a deviated septum

Document the deviation in the medical record in case the person needs to be suctioned

57

Where are oral malignancies most likely to develop

In the mucosal gutter under the tongue

58

What sense in the elderly is greatly decreased

Ability to identify orders

59

What abnormal conditions could affect the location of the apical impulse

Cardiac enlargement

Left ventricle dilation a.k.a. volume overload

Barrel chest, left ventricular hypertrophy and no dilation or pressure overload

Pulmonary emphysema

60

Which heart sounds is loudest?

1st Lub -at the mitral area at the apex

And softer at the base

61

Characteristics of the second heart sound and intensity of Apex in the base of the heart

Dub - loudest at the base

Closure of semilunar valve and signals end of dyalstole

62

Major risk factors for heart disease and stroke

Hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity, family history of heart disease, age, gender

63

Which heart sounds coincides with the carotid artery pulse and R wave if connected to an ECG monitor

S1

64

What are the characteristics of an innocent and functional murmur

An innocent murmur has no pathologic cause

A functional murmur Is caused by increased blood flow in the heart

65

Where to escalate the Pulmonic valve

Second left interspace

66

What is the cause of the second heart sound?

Closing of the aortic and pulmonic valves

67

When auscultating the heart, what is your first step?

Identify S1 and S2

68

Why should the stethoscope bell depressed lightly against the skin?

Because the build of the act of a diaphragm

69

Tough, Fibrous, double walled Sac that surrounds and protects the heart

Pericardium

70

Thin layer of endothelial tissue that lines the inner surface of the heart chambers and valves

Endocardium

71

Reservoir for holding blood

Atrium

72

Ensures smooth, friction free movement of the heart muscle

Pericardial fluid

73

Muscular pumping chamber

Ventricle

74

Muscular wall of the heart

Myocardium

75

Three ways that help return blood to the heart

Contracting skeletal muscles which milk blood back toward the heart

The pressure gradient cause breathing

Intraluminal valves and sure flow

76

What are the risk factors for venous status

Elderly diabetes, obesity, peripheral vascular disease, pregnancy, smoking, verocrose veins, activity

77

Function of the lymphatic system

Transports fluids back to blood

Acts as the body’s defense and resistance to disease

78

What is the function of the lymph nodes

Removes toxins from lymph that do not belong there

Acts as a filter

79

Organs of the lymphatic system

, tonsils, Thymus , spleen

80

Symptom areas to address during peripheral vascular system history

Leg pain or cramps, skin changes and arms or legs, lymph node enlargement, medication

81

Grading scale for assessing force of a pulse, zero, one, two, three, 4+

Zero means no pulse

One plus means weak

2+ means normal

3+ means increased

4+ plus means full bounding

82

Skin characteristics with arterial insufficiency in legs

Malnutrition, pallor and coolness occur

83

And characteristics with venous insufficiency in the lower legs?

Malnutrition, thin, shiny atrophic skin, thick nails, with hair loss,Ulcers, gangrene

84

Raynaud phenomenon associated tricolor changes of the skin tone ???

Blue to white to tored

85

What is the function of the venous system

It forms a major part of the immune system that defends the body against diseases

86

If it clients Rt hand was red and swollen where would you asses for further infection?

Epitrochlear node

87

Would you screan for deep vein thrombosis

Measure the widest point with a tape measure

88

What should you do if you are an able to palpate the popilteal pulse

Proceed with the examination because it is often impossible to palpate this pulse

89

What is a known risk for venous ulcer development

Obesity

90

What is a cause if arteriosclerosis

Loss of elasticity of walls of blood vessels

91

What is intermittent claudication

Muscular pain relieved by exercise

92

Describe the most important point about the health history for the respiratory system

Cough, shortness of breath, chest pain with breathing history or respiratory infection, smoking history, environmental exposure, self-care behaviors

93

With the elements included in the inspection of the respiratory system

Posterior and lateral thorax, anterior chest

94

What is barrel chest and what might it signify

What is win the ribs or horizontal instead of normally down word

It may be due to normal aging or emphysema or asthma

95

Marked sunken sternum and adjacent cartilages

Pectus excavatrum

96

Three types of normal breath sounds, location, name, description of sound

Bronchial : trachea/larynx, high pitched/loud

Bronchovesicular: scapulae Rt side , moderate pitch and amplitude

Vesicular sounds : bronchioles and alveoli, low pitch sound, soft

97

How many degrees is the normal costal angle

90

98

What is the expected ratio when comparing the anterioposterior diameter of the chest with the transverse diameter

The ratio should be 1:2 to 5:7

Ap is lower than transverse

99

What is the tripod position

Position where is the patient leans forward with hands on their knees, on chair, or bed helps COPD patient with expiration

100

Description of the left lung

Narrower than the right with two lobes

101

Characteristic timing of the cough of chronic bronchitis

Productive cough for at least three months of the year for two consecutive years

102

Symmetric chest expansion with assessment

Please handsome postorolateral chest wall with thumbs at the level of T9 or T10 And then slide my hands up to pinch a small fold of the skin between the thumbs

103

A client has increased respiratory rate Chest expansion decrease on the left side, for percussion over the left lower lobe, breath sounds louder with fine crackles over the left lower lobe. What might the symptoms resemble?

Lobar pneumonia

104

Base of nails angel are greater than 160 degrees and feels spongy when palpating . What does this indicate?

COPD

105

What is the best Method to listen to breath sounds on a client

Did the diaphragm of the stuff in the chest wall, listen to one for respiration in each location, ensure to do a side to side comparison

106

What do you ask the client to do in order to perform the technique of egophony

Say e-e-e each time stethoscope is moved

107

What does pulse oximetry measure

Arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin

108

What is it important to do when examining for tactile fremitus

Palpate the chest symmetrically

109

Exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine

Kyphosis

110

LS shaped curvature of the thoracic and lumbar spine

Scoliosis

111

Sunken sternum and adjacent cartilage

Pectus excavatum

112

Elliptic shape with an anteroposterior to transverse diameter in the ratio of 1:2

Normal chest

113

Forward protruding of the sternum with ribs sloping back at either side

Pectus carinatum

114

Inspection of the abdomen findings that should be noted

Contour, symmetry, umbilicus skin, pull station, Hair distribution, demeanor

115

Rationale for performing auscultation of the abdomEn Before health palpation or percussion

Palpation can increase Movementin the stomach and give a false interpretation of bowel sounds

116

HowTo listen to bowel sounds

Use the diaphragm of the stethoscope and press lately on the skin, listen to all four quadrants starting with the right lower and go clockwise, listen for five minutes at a time, note characteristics and frequency of bowel sounds

117

What does a normal abdominal sound like

Perched, gurgling, cascading sounds 5 to 30 times per minute

118

How do hyperactive sound in the stomach sound

Loud, high-pitched rushing, tingling sounds that signal mobility

119

Hypo active stomach sounds, when would one to have?

After surgery or with inflammation of the periitoneum

120

deep Palpation

Abnormalties detected by palpation

5 to 8 cm noting location, size, consistency, mobility of organs in the presence of any tenderness

enlarge liver, enlarge spleen, tenderness

121

Light palpation

Abnormalties that may be detected by palpation?

Press about 1 cm in to get an overall impression of the skin service and superficial musculature

Muscle guarding, rigidity, Large massive and tenderness

122

Describe a rebound tenderness

Person reports abdominal pain, peritoneal inflammation

Old hand at 90° and push down slowly and deeply. Lift handled quickly and a normal responses no pain in the patient

123

Describe the procedure and reason for determining CVA tenderness

Please handover the 12th rib at the costoventebral angle on the back

Thump the hand with the owner edge of the other

First pain occurs with inflammation of the kidney or paranephric area

124

In what sequence do you examine the abdomen

Inspection, escalation, percussion, palpation

125

What pathalogy might right upper quadrant tenderness indicate

Liver, pancreas, or ascending colon issues

126

Listening of the abdomen me review roots of what artery’s

Aortic, Renal, iliac, femoral

127

Why is osculating the abdomen beginning in the RLQ

Because bm sounds are always normally present here

128

Where is the lower edge of the liver normally located

At the right costal margin

129

Does the left upper quadrant contain in stomach

Spleen

130

Describe the significance of the inguinal canal and femoral canal

They are both potential sites for hernias

131

Teaching points to include when teaching testicular self examination

TSE

Time - once a month

Shower- With warm water because it relaxes scrotal sac

Examine- Check for changes, report changes immediately

132

Enlarged and reddened scrotum hard to distinguish from testees, wbc and bacteria in urine

Epididymitis

133

When standing feels soft like bag of worms in testes, varicose veins in spermatic cord

Varicocele

134

Fluid sac that don’t usually hurt but can if grows too large

Spermatocele

135

Lump, swelling, or pain in scrotum/abdomen, firmness in testicle /cancer

Testicular tumor

136

Fluid filled sac around a testicle, often first noticed as swelling of the scrotum

Hydrocele

137

What is the normal finding on examination of the scrotum

Left testicle hangs lower than the right

138

Prostatic hypertrophy is common in older men , what s/s May indicate this problem?

Straining , loss of force , and a sense of residual Urine

139

What would be a normal age-related change in the scrotum

Pendulous scrotum

140

When teaching about testicular self exam what fact should be shared in regards to age the typical age range for the occurrence of testicular cancer?

15-34 years of age

141

What is the congenital displacement of the urethral meatus to the inferior surface of the penis called?

Hyposospadias

142

What is a normal finding on palpation of testes

Firm, rubbery, smooth

143

Screening measures that are recommended for early detection of colorectal cancer and prostate cancer?

Colonoscopy ages 50-75

144

Foods to reduce risk of colon cancer

Low in fat

145

Population with highest BPH

African Americans

146

How is normal stool described?

Brown and soft in consistency

147

How to comfort women while doing vagina exam/pap

Empty bladder before exam, Position table so peri area is not exposed to door, elevate head, family or friend present is desired, place stirrups, explain each step before doing it, assure them they can stop at any time , be gentle but firm , communicate

148

How to prepare vaginal speculum?

Warm and lubricate it with warm water and gel lubricant

149

Characteristics of vaginal discharge :

White curdy not mal odorous

Candidiasis (yeast infection)

150

Characteristics of vaginal discharge :

Pruitus, watery, and often malodorous , thick, white , itchy

Trichomoniasis

151

Characteristics of vaginal discharge :

Thin creamy gray-white malodorous

Bacterial vaginitis

152

Characteristics of vaginal discharge :

Yellow or green muco purulent discharge

Chlamydia

153

Characteristics of vaginal discharge :

Purulent /pus

Gonorrhea

154

Normal presence of genitalia of 70 year old lady

Thin and sparse pubic hair

155

What is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted STD in the US?

Chlamydia

156

What problems are associated with smoking and oral contraceptives?

Blood clots and pulmonary clots

157

Hx questions to ask regarding breast exam

Any hx of breast disease ? Type?

How was it diagnosed ?

Family hx? Ages?

Pain discharge

Rashes , lesions , swelling ?

158

Components of breast exam

Subjective: pain, lumps, discharge , rash, trauma, hx of disease , surgery, meds , radiation

Objective- inspection, appearance, drainage, nipple, teach self exam

159

Self Breast exam teachings

Early detection is important

Palpate in shower and lay supine

Perform after period due to decrease congestion

160

Pathological changes that may occur in the breast:

Bilat nodules pain

Benign breast disease

161

Pathological changes that may occur in the breast:

Inflammatory mass, red, swollen hard and hot

Acute mastitis

162

Pathological changes that may occur in the breast:

Solitary, nontender mass, benign

Fibroadenoma

163

Pathological changes that may occur in the breast:

Solitary non tender growing mass

Cancer

164

Pathological changes that may occur in the breast:

Early lesion yellow discharge, bloody red nipple

Pager disease

165

Characteristics to consider when a mass is noted in the breast?

Location, size, shape, moveable , tender, lump

166

Gynecomastia

Visible breast tissue , enlargement in males

167

High risk and moderate risk factors for breast cancer

Alcohol, decreased activity, obesity,female, over 50 years old, family history, low income, birth control

168

Most common site of breast tumors

left Upper outer quadrant

169

What to know about breasts during development ?

One may grow faster than the other

170

When should one start getting mammagram and how often?

45 - every year

55 years- Every 2 years

171

Malignant versus benign lump in the breast

Malignant :fixed, irregular , poorly defined margins

Benign: soft, moveable well defined margins