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1

Test for visual acuity and sharpness of vision 20/20 means you can see 20 feet away covering one eye.

Snellen Test

2

Test where one hits the tuning fork and place it on the mastoid process. when the patient can no longer hear vibrations then move it in front of the ear

Hearing-rinne test

3

What is a bruit and how do you assess for it ??

It is a blowing or swishing SOUND during systole- heard over the carotid area while auscultating.

It indicates blow flow turbulence.

4

What is PERRLA and what does it stand for ??

Pupils, equal, round, reactive to light, and accommodation.

It’s what you check the eyes for

5

How to auscultate over a bruit?

Lightly apply BELL of stethoscope to auscultate over carotid artery at 3 levels.

1. Angle of jaw

2.mid-cervical area

3. Base of neck

6

How to auscultate lungs ?

Have patient breath normal with mouth open

Auscultate lungs bilaterally, alternate and compare sides.

Use the diaphragm of the stethoscope, first listen with a quiet respiration, deep breaths

Note the intensity, quality, and pitch of breaths

7

How to auscultate abdomen?

Inspect abdomen

Auscultate from Lower Right Quadrant clockwise to upper right, upper left, lower left.

Palpate sites/any pain?

Ask when was your last BM?

8

how to do Assessment of moles?

Assess ABCDE

Asymmetry, border, color, diameter, envolving or changing appearance

9

skin lesion type- Confluence, brought on by patient or environmental factors external causes such as scratch, trauma, infections, wound healing, crust, scale, scar, excoriation, ulcer

Secondary skin lesion

10

Pustules, macule, papule, nodule, tumor, plaque, vesicle, bullae,


(elevated superficial lesion greater than 1cm in diameter, formed by a confluence of papules or developed from previously “normal” skin)

Primary skin lesion

11

Lymph nodes and sites

Cervical neck <1cm

Axillary armpits

Supraclavicular collar bone

Mediastinal upper body behind sternum/between lung sac

Mesentery-Lower body/abdomen

Inguinal- groin

Femoral- inner/upper thigh

12

What is normal finding when palpating lymph nodes ?

Non tender, non-palpable , soft ,smooth, moveable , bean shaped in subq tissue

1 cm in size , 0.5-2.0 depending on location

13

Normal breath sounds in :

anterior if lungs ?

Posterior of lungs?

Anterior: bronchial- high pitched

Posterior: bronchovesicular and vesicular - low pitched lungs

14

Lung sounds and what they might mean?

- continuous low pitched sounds (like wheezes/whistling) with gurgling, snoring
Sounds like snoring in a stronger an expiration
Heard in the chest wall where bronco occurs. Air is blocked or flow is rough

Rhonchi-

Could mean asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, foreign body

15

Lung sounds and what they might mean?

High/fine or low/course popping , clicking, bubbling, when air opens closed air spaces (opening of small airways),

Crackles

Could mean inflammation, infection of small bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

May indicate pulmonary edema or fluid in the alveoli due to heart failure, pneumonia, pulmonary Edema, TB, or bronchitis

16

Lung sounds and what they might mean?

High pitched whistles

Wheezing

Airways are narrowing or keeping air from flowing through

17

Lung sounds and what they might mean?

High pitched, wheeze like sounds heard when breathing due to blockage of airflow in windpipe , trachea , or back of throat

Stridor

May indicate croup

18

Lung sounds and what they might mean?

Low pitched, non musical , many repeated sounds

Rub

May indicate inflammation of lungs and lung tremors

19

Lung sounds and what they might mean?

Short breaths,


can be due to Partial loss all of ventilation tissue, hyper inflated lung tissue, abnormality that reduces transmission, absence of functioning structures

Diminished lung sounds

20

Results from valve damage or _________distention

If valve leak occurs, veins become incompetent and blood falls back under gravity as calf muscles relax, increasing _______pressure

Venous

Venous

Venous insufficiency

21

Pallor with legs elevated , dusky redness of toes , feet, and calves, dry shiny skin, pulses, delayed cap refill, cool to cold skin, loss of hair over toes, dorsum (top of foot) , thickened nails, pain, intermittent (stoping for some time and then going) claudication (impairment in walking) to sharp, unrelenting(hard), constant.

Arterial insufficiency

22

Bdvvc

Limb assessment

23

Different stages of edema ?

How long it lasts? mm?? Severity of pitting?
0+
1+
2+
3+
4+

0 + none
1+mild pitting 2mm and disappears rapidly
2+ moderate 4mm, 10-15 second pitting
3+ moderately severe, 6mm and lasts more than 1 min
4+ severe pitting edema, 8mm and lasts more than 2 minutes

24

What causes heart sounds?

Opening and closing of the valves to blood flow throughout the heart

25

How to heart a patients heart better?

Have patient sit up , lean forward, roll to left side , breath out and hold it but not too long

Bell on skin, turn down TV, close door , reduce distractions

26

Heart sound LUB-

Mitral and tricuspid valve closure

S1- first heart sound

27

Heart sound DUB

Aortic and pulmonary valve closing

S2 - 2nd heart sound

28

Heart sloshing sound at beginning of diastolic after S2. LUB-dub-ta

Indicate?

S3

May indicate heart failure or volume overload

29

Pre-systolic gallop or before S1. Occurs after atrial contraction at the end of diastole and right before S1.

S4

30

Types of murmurs (whooshing sounds in heart) :

Mitral valve abnormality and aortic valve

Regurgitation

31

Types of murmurs (whooshing sounds in heart) :

Aortic valve and mitral valve

Stenosis

32

Types of murmurs (whooshing sounds in heart) :

Short high pitches sounds

Clicks

33

Types of murmurs (whooshing sounds in heart) :

Inflammation of pericardium, high pitches scratching , creaking sounds from rubbing of inflamed layers

Rubs

34

Phases of cardiac cycle (systole and diastole)

Atrial systole

Early ventricular systole

Ventricular systole

Early ventricular diastole

Late ventricular diastole

35

The contraction phase of heart where chambers of the heart contract and pump the blood out of the chambers

Systole

36

The relaxation phase of heart where the chambers relax. During this phase the chambers are filled with blood.

Diastole

37

Area of the heart location:

2nd Rt. intercostal

Aortic

38

Area of the heart location:

2nd Lt intercostal space

Pulmonic valve

39

Area of the heart location:

3rd Lt intercostal

Erbs point

40

Area of the heart location:

4th Lt intercostal

Tricuspid valve area

41

Area of the heart location:

5th ICS mid-left clavicular line (further left)

Mitral valve area

42

True or false:

Adolescences can have swollen lymph nodes just from growing

True

43

What qualities to assess with pulse ?

Rate
Rhythm
Elasticity (of vessel wall)
Force (equal on each side)

44

Location of pulses ?

Apical
Brachial
Radial
Carotid
Dorsalis pedis (above big toe)
Popoliteal- begins knee
Posterior tibialis-side of back heel/ankle
Femoral-groin

45

Thoracic deformity where back is protruding, ribs are horizontal instead of downward- due to normal aging. ?

can result in what?

Barrel chest

Emphysema and asthma

46

Thoracic deformity where one has sunken chest which is genetic at birth

Pectus excavatum

47

Thoracic deformity where one has protruding chest

Pectus carinatum