Final Exam Terms (weeks 13-16) Flashcards Preview

Intro to Human Development and Family Studies > Final Exam Terms (weeks 13-16) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Terms (weeks 13-16) Deck (30)
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1

Learning

Requires processing, exploring, organizing, and synthesizing information.

2

Scheme

Refers to mental structures that people create to represent, organize, and interpret experiences, and adapt to new experiences.

3

Assimilation

Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemes.

4

Equilibrium

Harmony between schemes and experiences.

5

Accommodation

Modifying existing structures in order to account for new experiences.

6

Disequilibrium

A state of cognitive discomfort that occurs during times of rapid change.

7

Sensorimotor

(0-2 years) The infant explores the world through direct sensory and motor contact. Object permanence and separation anxiety develop during this stage.

8

Preoperational

(2-6 years) The child uses symbols (words and images) to represent objects but does not reason logically. This child also has the ability to pretend. During this stage, the child is egocentric.

9

Concrete Operational

(7-12 years) The child can think logically about concrete objects and can thus add and subtract. This child also understands conservation.

10

Formal Operational

(12 years to adult) The adolescent can reason abstractly and think in hypothetical terms.

11

Socio-Cultural Theory

-Lev Vygotsky
-Development cannot be separated from social context
-Language plays a central role in cognitive development

12

Scaffolding

Supporting the learner's development by providing support structures to get to the next stage or skill set.

13

Behavior

Learned, observable, measurable

14

Classical Conditioning

One stimulus, through pairing with another, can produce a similar response.

15

Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

A stimulus that evokes an unlearned response.

16

Unconditioned Response (UR)

Unconditioned stimulus that occurs without prior conditioning (reflex).

17

Conditioned Stimulus (CR)

A previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.

18

Conditioned Response (CR)

A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of a prior conditioning.

19

Operant Conditioning

Behavior is determined by environmental reinforcement and punishment.

20

Observational Theory

(Bandura) Behavior is learned by observing and imitating the behavior of others (imitation/modeling)

21

System

A whole made up of independent, but interrelated parts to achieve an end purpose (goal).

22

Systems Theory

Views things as systems that are interconnected, interdependent, and interact.

23

System Theory Concepts

-Systems are goal-oriented and the primary goal is survival
-Systems have boundaries that can be permeable or impermeable

24

Open System

(Morphogenic - permeable boundaries)
-Exchange information and materials with the outside environment
-Is adaptive and open to change

25

Closed System

(Morphostatic - impermeable boundaries)
-Receives no input from its environment
-is resistant to change

26

Reciprocity

Systems or members influence each other as they interact with each other.

27

Family

Two or more people who are living together and who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.

28

Family Types

Nuclear, LGBT, Single Parent, Reconstructed, extended, attenuated extended (live apart, but keep regular contact), biracial, bicultural.

29

Types of Unions

Married, cohabiting/unwed, monogamy, polygamy, polyandry.

30

Basic Functions of Family

Reproduction, pool resources, teaches values to children, stable sex relationship for adults and controls sex relationship of its members.